1.4.7 Spanish Eclecticism (1845-1890), Macchiaioli, Italy (1850s)

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QUICK LINKS:
Spanish Eclecticism 1845-90:
Capitulation. Ortiz
The Siesta, Alsina
Execution Torrijos, Gispert Pérez
Macchiaioli (1850s):
Country Road, Abbati
Palazzo del Podestà, Abbati
Palmieri Rotunda, Fattori
Ghetto Florence, Signorini

Spanish Eclecticism was a movement among Spanish painters from 1845 to 1890. It was named after the tendency by artists to select from among multiple established styles of that era. A sensibility of relative renewal dominated the rest of Europe, while in Spain, Realism and Impressionism were slow to take hold. The movement is also said to be associated with the idea that models and innovations had run their course.

[Source: Wikimedia commons]

[1471-10]


Image source: Wikimedia commons
This painting by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz shows Muhammad XII, also known as Boabidil, the last Emir of Granada (left), handing over the city’s keys to the Catholic monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon (right). The painting was commissioned by the Spanish Senate in 1879 and was finished by Ortiz in 1882.
[Source: ieg-ego.eu]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Capitulation of Granada1882Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Ortiz, Francisco Pradilla1848-1921, aged 73Spanish painterSpanish Eclecticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1471-11]

Palace of the Senate, Madrid, Spain330 x 500  
In this work, of which a more finished version exists, Martí Alsina managed to distil the lesson learned in Paris, where he was in direct contact with realist painting, some of whose postulates he imported into Catalonia.

The Siesta, painted 20 years after the paradigmatic works of French realism and with less marked characteristics, shares their portrayal of a character, in this case, an unmistakable representative of the Catalan bourgeoisie, in an inelegant attitude, the contrasting treatment of the light, the almost photographic framing and the austere palette.
[Source: museunacional.cat]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Siesta, The1884Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Alsina, Ramon Marti1826-1894, aged 68Spanish painterSpanish Eclecticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1471-12]

Museu Nacional D’Art de Cataluyna, Barcelona Spain53 x 56  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
The finest work of all Gisbert’s production, this impressive painting is also unarguably one of the most beautiful of all 19th-century Spanish history paintings. Moreover, it is one of the greatest political manifestos of all Spanish painting in defense of human freedom crushed by authoritarianism and one of the very few cases in which a clear propagandistic message was directly inspired by government officialdom.

In fact, it did not enter the Museo del Prado after being shown at the National Fine Arts Exhibitions, which would normally have been the case.
[Source: museodelprado.es]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Execution of Torrijos and his companions at Málaga Beach1888Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Gispert Pérez, Antonio1834-1901, aged 67Spanish painterSpanish Eclecticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): 

Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid Spain390 x 601  

1.4.7.2 Macchiaioli (1850s):

The Macchiaioli were a group of Italianpainters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century. They strayed from antiquated conventions taught by the Italian art academies, and did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light, shade, and colour.

This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years later, although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes.

The most notable artists of this movement were Giuseppe Abbati, Cristiano Banti, Odoardo Borrani, Vincenzo Cabianca, Adriano Cecioni, Vito D’Ancona, Serafino De Tivoli, Giovanni Fattori, Raffaello Sernesi, Silvestro Lega and Telemaco Signorini.

[Source: Wikimedia commons]

[1472-10]


Image source: Wikimedia commons
To this day, the hilly Tuscan countryside is dotted with olive groves and ominous cypress trees, frequently found along roadsides and near cemeteries.

Abbati chose a patch of sandy, yellow road for the foreground, where long afternoon shadows are casting the shades of other cypress trees to be imagined outside of the picture plane. Large areas of different hues are effectively played off against one another in a rather abstract fashion.
[Source: wga.hu]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Country Road with Cypresses1860Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Abbati, Giuseppe1836-1868, aged 32Italian painterMacchiaioli
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1472-11]

Galleria dell’Arte Moderna, Palazzo Pitti, Florence Italy28 x 37  
Abbati was born in Naples. He received early training in painting from his father Vincenzo, who specialized in paintings of architectural interiors, and Abbati’s own early paintings were interiors. He participated in Garibaldi’s 1860 campaign, suffering the loss of his right eye at the Battle of Capua. Afterwards he moved to Florence where, at the Caffè Michelangiolo, he met Giovanni Fattori, Silvestro Lega, and the rest of the artists who would soon be dubbed the Macchiaioli.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Tower of the Palazzo del Podestà, The1865Oil/WoodLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Abbati, Giuseppe1836-1868, aged 32Italian painterMacchiaioli
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1472-12]

Private Collection39 x 32  

Image source: pixels.com
Giovanni Fattori was an Italian artist, one of the leaders of the group known as the Macchiaioli. He was initially a painter of historical themes and military subjects. In his middle years, inspired by the Barbizon school, he became one of the leading Italian plein-airists, painting landscapes, rural scenes, and scenes of military life. After 1884, he devoted much energy to etching.
[Source: Wikimedia commons}
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Palmieri Bath House Rotunda, The1866Genre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Fattori, Giovanni1825-1908, aged 83Italian painterMacchiaioli
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1472-13]

Galleria dell’Arte Moderna, Florence0  
View of a street crowded with people of all social classes and age; elderly, hunchbaked men walking along the street, knots of men in the middle of the street, a woman doing shopping in a street market; in the foreground, young girls clean vegetables sitting on the ground.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Ghetto of Florence1882Etching/AcquaforteLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Signorini, Telemaco1835-1901, aged 65Italian painterMacchiaioli
LOCATION:SIZE (cms):  
Uknown95 x 65  

Forward to 1.4.8 Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1848 – 1854)
Back to 1.4.6 American Barbizon school (1850-1890s) – Back to 1.4 After Romanticism index
Forward to 1.5 Modern Art (1860-WWI)

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