1.7.8 Sculpture Art

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Night, Maillol
Day and Night, Epstein
Reclining Figure, Moore
Ariel Between Wisdom and Gaiety/Broadcasring House
Birth of the Muses, Lipchitz
Monolith (Empyrean), Hepworth
Cat, Giacometti
Women and Dog, Marisol
Double Oval, Moore
Untitled (Stack), Judd
Public Sculpture, Picasso
Heimar, Noguchi
Atmosphere and Environment XII, Nevelson

Crinkly avec disc rouge, Calder
Woman and Bird, Miró
Untitled (1991-3), Gober
United Enemies, Schütte
Spider, Bourgeois
Angel of the North, Gormley
Maman, Bourgeois
Iron:Man, Gormley
Virgin Mother, Hirst
Expansion, Bradley
Kelpies, Scott
Tree, McCarthy
Awilda and Irma, Plensa

Three-dimensional art made by one of four basic processes: carving, modelling, casting, constructing.

[Source; tate.org.uk]



Image source: metmuseum.org
The square shouldered and well-developed, but heavy-set torso is that of Maillol’s Catalan wife, Clotilde, who is recognizable as the model for many of Maillol’s earlier sculptures, including the monumental Night. A limestone version of the figure was acquired in 1916 by the Kunstmuseum in Winterthur, Switzerland.
[source: metmuseum.org]
Maillol, Aristide 1861-1944, aged 83French sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-11]


Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA105 x 57 x 108  
Jacob Epstein’s Day and Night (1928) carved portland stone statues were for London Underground’s Headquarters at 55 Broadway, London.

When they were unveiled, the graphic nudity of the sculptures was just too shocking for 1920s Londoners. Newspapers started a campaign to have the statues removed. One company director offered to pay the removal cost and the managing director at the time took responsibility and offered his resignation.

Epstein agreed to remove a couple of inches from the penis of the smaller figure on Day and ultimately the furore died down.
[source: Wikimedia commons]



Image source: Wikimedia commons
Day and Night1928Portland StoneSculpture
Epstein, Sir Jacob1880-1959, aged 78American-British sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-12]


London Underground HQ, 55 Broadway, London UK0  

Image source: tate.org.uk

Image source: theartstory.org
This was the first figure Moore sculpted in brown Hornton stone, and it was heavily influenced by an Aztec sculpture, the Chacmool figure, of which he saw a cast in a Paris museum. Moore said of the Chacmool figure that it was the most important work to influence his early career: Its stillness and alertness, a sense of readiness – and the whole presence of it, and the legs coming down like columns.

Moore’s own Reclining Figure is emblematic of the influence of non-Western art on his earliest work, something that came to him in part though Roger Fry’s book Vision and Design. The figure is also one of the earliest instances of Moore’s use of the reclining figure, a motif that would become central to his mature style. The lower (smaller) image shows a Moore Reclining Figure from 1957-8, for the UNESCO HQ in Paris.
[source: theartstory.org]
Reclining Figure1929Brown Sculpture
Moore, Henry1898-1986, aged 88English sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-34]


Leeds Museums and Galleries   

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Ariel Between Wisdom and Gaiety: at the BBC’s Broadcasring House in London. It sits above the public entrance to the Concert Hall, this group shows Ariel between Wisdom and Gaiety, the latter having taken Ariel’s pipe. Ariel’s outstretched arms symbolise his willingness to embrace both.
[Source: orbem.co.uk]
Ariel Between Wisdom and Gaiety1932 Sculpture
Gill, Eric1882-1940, aged 58English sculptor, typeface designer,Sculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-13]


Broadcasting House London W1A, UK   
Birth of the Muses: this piece grew out of a series of small sketches from 1944 treating the theme of Pegasus. According to myth, this winged horse alighted on Mount Olympus. Where its four hooves touched the ground, four springs of water emerged in which the muses were born. In its allusion to the birth of inspiration. In Lipchitz’s first maquette, Pegasus was shown frontally, the artist turned him in profile and developed the sculpture in a high relief.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Birth of the Muses1944-50BronzeSculpture
Lipchitz, Jacques1891-1973, aged 81Lithuanian sculptorSculpture Art/Cubism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-14]


Massachusetts Institute of Technology Campus, Cambridge, Massachusetts USA0  

Image source: barbarahepworth.org.uk

Monolith (Empyrean): is said to have been a memorial to Hepworth’s son Paul Skeaping and his navigator, who were killed on active service with the RAF in Malaya in 1953.

Hepworth (pictured) said: The monolith is a monument to those who seek their freedom in the upper air even though it involves fire and falling earthwards. [source: artuk.org]

Sited on the South Bank from 1954-61. Purchased from Hepworth by the London County Council in 1959. It is now at Kenwood, London (English Heritage).
[Source: barbarahepworth.org.uk]
Monolith (Empyrean)1953Blue Corrib limestoneSculpture
Hepworth, Barbara1903-1975, aged 72English sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-15]


Kenwood House, Hamspead Heath, London UK2.7m  
Giacometti remembered that his brother Diego’s cat passed just like a ray of light, squeezing its lithe and predatory form between close objects without ever touching them. This cat is one of only a few sculptures of animals by Giacometti; the others are a dog and two horses.
[source: metmuseum.org]

Image source: sothebys.com
Giacometti, Alberto 1901-1966, aged 64Swiss sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-16]


Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA   

Image source: mutualart.com
Women and Dog: Equal parts painting, collage, carving, and assemblage, it was inspired by sources as diverse as its constituent materials. Marisol worked in New York during the emergence of Pop Art in the early 1960s and was one of few women associated with the movement.

The trio of females strolling with a child and a dog seem to suggest Marisol’s interest in social norms and conventions relating to women in society, but the composition is ambiguous.
[source: whitney.org]
Women and Dog1963-4Wood, plaster, synthetic polymer, and taxidermied dog headSculpture
Marisol (Escobar)1930-2016, aged 85Venezuelan-American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-17]


Whitney Museum of Modern Art187 x 195 x 68  
Double Oval: expresses a seemingly impossible balance between bulk and grace. The surface, smooth in some places and rough in others, gives the sculpture a tactile quality and creates a sensation of depth and shade.

Like many of Moore’s works, “Double Oval” contains hollow spaces, which not only offer the viewer a glimpse of the landscape beyond and portion of the other form, but also heightens the sense of balance and harmony.
[source: landmark.hk]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Double Oval1966BronzeSculpture
Moore, Henry1898-1986, aged 88English sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-18]


Jardine House, Hong Kong550 tall  

Image source: moma.org
Untitled (Stack): projects nearly three feet from the wall and climbs like rungs on a ladder from floor to ceiling. It is made of galvanized iron boxes, all identical and of equal importance. The space around the boxes is also important.

Donald Judd ignored traditional craft skills in favour of an overriding system or idea. He wanted his work to suggest an industrial production line. In fact, Judd had his works made in a factory in order to obtain a perfect finish without having to rework the material. The box was one of Judd’s favorite forms, because he felt it was neutral and had no symbolic meaning.
[source: moma.org]
Untitled (Stack)1967Lacquer on galvanized ironSculpture
Judd, Donald1928-1994, aged 65American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-19]


MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, NY12 x 23 x 102 x 79 cms  
The ‘Chicago Picasso’ is an untitled monumental sculpture by Pablo Picasso in Daley Plaza in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubist sculpture was the first such major public artwork in Downtown Chicago, and has become a well-known landmark. Publicly accessible, it is known for its inviting jungle gym-like characteristics, visitors can often be seen climbing on and sliding down the base of the sculpture.
[source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: pinterest.com
Public Sculpture1967Cor-teen steelSculpture
Picasso, Pablo1881-1973, aged 91Spanish sculptorSculpture Art/Cubism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-20]


Daley Plaza, Chicago USA   

Image source: Wikimedia commons
From 1960 to 1965, Isamu Noguchi laid the Billy Rose sculpture park on the slope of the museum grounds and divided the area into different sections with walls made of rough, unprocessed field stones. It is used to show works by important sculptors from the 19th century, and his six Heimar pieces were used to punctuate these.
[Source: de.zxc.wiki]
Heimar (edition of six)1968BronzeSculpture
Noguchi, Isamu 1904-1988, aged 84Japanese American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-21]


Billy Rose Sculpture Garden, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel142 x 50 x 28  
Atmosphere and Environment XII: is made of 18,000 pounds of Cor-Ten steel which gradually weathers to form its own patina. Nevelson is known for her wall-like sculptures painted in one color and incorporating a myriad of abstract forms. It consists of six columns of open rectangular cubes bolted together. The entire openwork composition seems to echo the landscape of a modern city.

Image source: associationforpublicart.org
Atmosphere and Environment XII1970-1973Cor-Ten steel/graniteSculpture
Nevelson, Louise 1899-1988, aged 88American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-22]


University of Pennsylvania, Shoemaker Green, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA556 x 305 x 152  

Image source: mapio.net
The abstract sculpture Crinkly avec disque rouge was created by Alexander Calder in 1973.

He is known for innovative mobiles, kinetic sculptures powered by motors or air currents. They embrace chance in monumental public sculptures.

This one is located at the Schlossplatz in Stuttgart, Germany, Baden-Württemberg.
[source: Wikimedia commons]
Crinkly avec disc rouge19730Sculpture
Calder, Alexander1898-1976, aged 78American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-23]


Schlossplatz, Stuttgart Germany0  
The sculpture is part of an artwork trilogy commissioned from Miró to welcome visitors to Barcelona.

t was one of Joan Miró’s last large sculptures which he constructed with the help of his friend and collaborator Joan Gardy Artigas. It was Miró’s design but Artigas was responsible for adding the tiles as he had done for Miró’s earlier mural in Ludwigshafen, Germany.. Miró was not able to attend the opening as he was too ill and he died less than a year later.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Woman and Bird (ES: Dona i Ocell)1982Concrete and tilesSculpture
Miró, Joan 1893-1983, aged 90Catalan sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-24]


Joan Miró Park, Barcelona Spain22m x 3m  

Image source: moma.org

Image source: newsnet.art.com
Gober had worked with this subject matter since 1989, when he made his first sculpture of a man’s leg; over the following two years, that initial form grew more complex.

This Untitled piece, was created for a 1991 installation at a museum in Paris, where it extended from a wall papered with a kaleidoscopic forest scene (lower image). Here the lower half of a man’s body lies directly on the floor against a wall, truncated at the waist. The body’s ordinary attire—slacks, socks, and well-worn shoes—projects a realism that is upset by the wax candles that seem to grow from its legs.
Source: [moma.org]
Untitled1991-3Wood, beeswax, leather, fabric, and human hairSculpture
Gober, Robert1954 – American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-25]


MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, NY34 x 42 x 117  
Schütte’s United Enemies I formally engages the conventions of commemorative public sculpture while purposely upsetting them.

This monumental bronze depicts two pairs of male figures—fiercely grimacing couples that have been bound to one another with rope, seemingly against their will. The work belongs to a long line of United Enemy sculptures, which Schütte first made in the early 1990s. [Source: moma.org]

Image source: moma.org
United Enemies I1994BronzeSculpture
Schütte, Thomas1964German sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-26]


MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, NY406 x 203 x 226  

Image source: cheimread.com

Image source: artnews.com
The works that have come to define Louise Bourgeois career are her sculptures of spiders, some of which tower 30 feet into the air and menacingly loom over viewers’ heads.

Bourgeois’s spiders are enduring sources of intrigue for many.
They have been the subject of a public exhibition at Rockefeller Center in New York in 2001, a longterm display at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and many more spaces around the globe.

Bourgeois created spiders of all different sizes, including small-scale brooches and overlapping networks of legs and bodies into the 2000s.
[source: artnews.com]
Bourgeois, Louise1911-2020, aged 98French-American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-27]


Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Moscow440 x 670 x 520  
Completed in 1998, the Angel of the North is the largest sculpture in Britain. The work faced considerable opposition during its design and construction phases, but is now widely recognised as an iconic example of public art and as a symbol of Gateshead and of the wider North East.
[source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Angel of the North1998SteelSculpture
Gormley, Antony1950English sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-28]


Atop a 75m hill at Low Eighton (Gateshead) beside the A1/A167 roads and  East Coast Main Line railway20m high, 54m wide  
Image source: artnews.comMaman was made for the opening of Tate Modern in May 2000 as part of Bourgeois’s commission for the Turbine Hall.

Maman is a monumental steel spider, so large that it can only be installed out of doors, or inside a building of industrial scale. Supported on eight slender, knobbly legs, its body is suspended high above the ground, allowing the viewer to walk around and underneath it. A meshed egg sac contains seventeen white and grey marble eggs that hang above the viewer’s head, gleaming in the darkness of their under-body cavity.
Maman1999Steel and marbleSculpture
Bourgeois, Louise1911-2020, aged 98French-American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-29]


Outside the Guggenheim, Bilbao, Spain927 x 892 x 1024  
Iron:Man is a statue by Antony Gormley, in Victoria Square, Birmingham, England. It is said by the sculptor to represent the traditional skills of Birmingham and the Black Country practised during the Industrial Revolution.

It was originally named Untitled, but gained the nickname Iron Man, which Gormley requested be changed to Iron:Man and become the official name for it.
[source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Gormley, Antony1950English sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-30]


Victoria Square, Birmingham6m tall  

Image source: damienhirst.com
The Virgin Mother: One half of the statue depicts a naked pregnant woman, while the other half shows what’s beneath the skin – the muscles, the bones, the foetus inside the womb.

Hirst’ has suggested that it referenced painter Edgar Degas and his 1881 painting Little Dancer of Fourteen Years. [Source: Wikimedia commons]
Virgin Mother, The2005-6Painted bronzeSculpture
Hirst, Damien1965 – English sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-31]


Various1023 x 462 x 207  
Expansion: is the sculpture of a woman meditating in lotus position with her body cracking to reveal an inner light.

The suggestion is to not be afraid to expand beyond your body and social structures. When the time is right, sometimes we have to crack open our own rigid structures and express our inner self and emotions…
[Source: designisthis.com]

Image source: reddit.com
Bradley, Paige1974 – sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-35]



Image source: Wikimedia commons
The Kelpies are mythical shape-shifting water creatures with immense power. Alex Scott created these 30m tall steel statues in 2013 for the Helix Parkland, next to a new extension to the Forth and Clyde Canal, near Falkirk, Scotland. The Kelpies are a monument to horse-powered heritage across Scotland.
Kelpies, The2013SteelSculpture
Scott, Alex1964-Scottish sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-32]

Helix Park, Falkirk30m  

Image source: elephant.art
Tree: this festive inflatable was placed in the Place Vendôme Paris by Paul McCarthy in 2014.

The work was criticised for a modernised Christmas tree, likened to a ‘butt plug’ sex toy and vandalised by unplugging it from its pump so that it rather limply deflated. The artist was also allegedly assaulted by a man who slapped him in the face three times and ran off! [Source: elephant.art]
McCarthy, Paul1945-American sculptorSculpture Art
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1780-33]

Awilda & Irma: designed for Cheekwood, Nashville in 201.

It is an open, stainless steel, mesh, outdoor sculpture of two heads (each 396 cms tall) that allow light and the surrounding landscape to be part of the work. The sculpture appears to float in the middle of a Cheekwood pond in the Robinson Family Water Garden making water part of the experience.
[source: lifa-research.org]

Plensa explained, I am working a lot within this concept of dualities. Everyday, we are in front of a mirror and we are looking at our face which seems to be talking to us in a silent conversation. It’s probably a beautiful metaphor about life. It’s a duality describing a strange relationship between body and soul.
[source: gpsradar.com]

Image source: gpsradar.com
Awilda and Irma20140Sculpture
Plensa, Jaume1955 –Spanish sculptorSculpture Art

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