1.3.6.1 Romanticism B (1826 onwards)

Forward to 1.3.7 African Art (800-1897)
Back to 1.3.6 Romanticism A – Back to 1.3.5 Neoclassicism (1750-1830)

QUICK LINKS:
Moonlight on River, Turner
Death of Sardanpalus, Delacroix
Liberty Leading the People, Delacroix
Great Wave, Hokusai
Salisbury Cathedral, Constable
Fort Vimieux, Turner
Last Days of Pompeii, Bryullov
Burning of the Houses, Turner
Rome from Mt Aventine, Turner
Venice, Turner
Juliet and her Nurse, Turner
The Oxbow, Cole
The Savage State, Cole
Crusaders near Jerusalem, Hayez
Frédéric Chopin, Delacroix
Fighting Temeraire, Turner

The Slave Ship, Turner
Dawn after the Wreck, Turner
Snow Storm, Turner
American Lake Scene, Cole
Rain, Steam and Speed, Turner
Norham Castle, Sunrise, Turner
Fur Traders, Bingham
The Ninth Wave, Alvazovsky
Washington Crossing the Delaware, Leutze
Young Martyr, Delaroche
Death of Chatterton, Wallis
The Kiss, Hayez
Cotopaxi, Church
Ugolino and sons, Carpeaux
Ville d’Avray, Corot
Woman with a Pearl, Corot
Girl with Clavier, Hammershoi
Somerset Maugham, Sutherland

[1361-10]


Image source: www.tate.org.uk
Turner has used the blue wove paper, which he often used in middle life, to great effect in this night-time composition.

He painted a mixture of red vermilion and a black pigment over the blue paper to form the dark clouds and some of the water, and used thinner washes of black pigment to suggest the shadowy hill and middle ground.

The spots of red pigment mixed with black for the clouds show up clearly in an X-radiograph of the paper, which indicates that the red is vermillion. The blue paper and dark washes surrounding it lend it a purplish tone that is an optical effect of the colours mixed with and around it, and which could wrongly suggest the use of a red lake with an unusual purplish tone instead. Lead white gouache highlights make the moon very bright in contrast to the evening light depicted. The moon also shows up clearly in the X-radiograph, indicating that it is painted in lead white gouache, as is its reflection and the brighter areas of the sky.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Moonlight on Riverc1826Gouache/Wtrclr/PaperLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-11]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK147 x 191  
The Death of Sardanapalus is based upon the tale of Sardanapalus, the last king of Assyria, from the historical library of Diodorus Siculus, the ancient Greek historian, and is a work of the era of Romanticism.

This painting uses rich, vivid and warm colours, and broad brushstrokes. It was inspired by Lord Byron’s play Sardanapalus (1821), and in turn inspired a cantata by Hector Berlioz, Sardanapale (1830), and also Franz Liszt’s opera, Sardanapalo (1845–1852, unfinished).
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Death of Sardanapalus1827Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Delacroix, Eugène1486-1530, aged 43French painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-12]

Musée du Louvre, Paris France392 x 496  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Although Delacroix completed this painting during same year in which the event occurred, it is, at its core, a history painting.

Indeed, Delacroix depicts an event from the July Revolution of 1830, an event that replaced the abdicated King Charles X with Louis Philippe I, the so-called Citizen King.

This uprising of 1830 was the historical prelude to the June Rebellion of 1832, an event featured in Victor Hugo’s famous novel, Les Misérables and the musical and films that followed. Anyone familiar with Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil’s musical can look at Delacroix’s Liberty Leading the People and hear the lyrics of the song that serves as a call to revolution:
Do you hear the people sing? Singing a song of angry men? It is the music of a people. Who will not be slaves again.
[Source: khanacademy.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Liberty Leading the People, The1830Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Delacroix, Eugène1486-1530, aged 43French painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-13]

Musée du Louvre, Paris France260 x 325  
The breathtaking composition of this woodblock print, said to have inspired Debussy’s La Mer (The Sea) and Rilke’s Der Berg (The Mountain), ensures its reputation as an icon of world art. Hokusai cleverly played with perspective to make Japan’s grandest mountain appear as a small triangular mound within the hollow of the cresting wave. The artist became famous for his landscapes created using a palette of indigo and imported Prussian blue.
[Source: metmuseum.org]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Great Wave , The (Off Kanagawa) [from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji]1831Ink/WdBlk, Ukiyo-eLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Hokusai, Katsushika1760 – 1849, aged 88Japanese painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-14]

Hakone Museum, 1121 Ninotaira, Hakone, Ashigarashimo District, Kanagawa 250-0407, Japan – and elsewhere26 x 38  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows, which Constable began painting in 1830, shows the cathedral from the north-west, looking across the River Nadder from a point near a footbridge known as the Long Bridge.

A team of three horses pulls a cart across the river from the left; cattle graze in the meadows in the right distance; and the centre foreground is occupied by a black and white sheepdog whose intent gaze is turned inwards towards the cathedral as if to direct the viewer towards the building or the storm that sweeps over it.

The spire pierces a sky full of billowing clouds; a dark rain cloud hangs directly above and a streak of lightning flashes over the roof; but a magnificent rainbow arches over all, promising that the storm will pass.

While the tall trees in the middle distance on the left are shaken by a squally breeze, the river’s surface is already glassy and smooth, reflecting the varied sky. Fresh raindrops glint and sparkle on the brambles in the foreground.

Throughout much of the canvas, the paint is handled with a febrile, sometimes even frenzied excitement, especially in the foreground undergrowth, the trembling trees and the Gothic architecture of the cathedral. Laid on with brush and palette knife, the paint ranges from thick and three-dimensional in the brambles, to thin and almost translucent in the rainbow. The picture was exhibited by

Constable at the Royal Academy in 1831 but never found a buyer. The painting remained in the artist’s studio – where he continued to retouch it – until his death in 1837.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows1831Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Constable, John1776-1837, aged 62English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-15]

Tate Galleries, London UK152 x 190  
‘Vividly natural and effective. It can hardly be too much admired’. These words from La Belle Assembleé reflected the enthusiasm which greeted this magnificent picture when it was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1831. 

Turner had always shown an instinctive understanding of the sea, and Fort Vimieux  with its vivid colours, which are typical of his work after his first two journeys to Italy, bring to mind such masterpieces as The Fighting Temeraire (National Gallery) completed seven years later.
[Source: sothebys.com]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Fort Vimieux1831Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-16]

Private Collection107 x 71  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
The Last Day of Pompeii is a large history painting by Karl Bryullov produced in 1830–1833 on the subject of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE.

It is notable for its positioning between Neoclassicism, the predominant style in Russia at the time, and Romanticism as increasingly practised in France.

The painting was received to near universal acclaim and made Bryullov the first Russian painter to have an international reputation. In Russia it was seen as proving that Russian art was as good as art practised in the rest of Europe.

Critics in France and Russia both noted, however, that the perfection of the classically modelled bodies seemed to be out of keeping with their desperate plight and the overall theme of the painting, which was a Romantic one of the sublime power of nature to destroy man’s creations.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Last Day of Pompeii1833Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Bryullov, Karl Pavlovich1799-1852Russian painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-17]

State Hermitage Museum, Palace Square, 2, St Petersburg, Russia, 190007651 x 466  
The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons is the title of two oil on canvas paintings by J. M. W. Turner, depicting the fire that broke out at the Houses of Parliament on the evening of 16 October 1834.

Along with thousands of other spectators, Turner himself witnessed the Burning of Parliament from the south bank of the River Thames, opposite Westminster. He made sketches using both pencil and watercolour in two sketchbooks from different vantage points, including from a rented boat, although it is unclear that the sketches were made instantly, en plein air.

The sketchbooks were left by Turner to the National Gallery as part of the Turner Bequest and are now held by the Tate Gallery.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, The (two versions)1834-5OilLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-18]

Pictured is the one held by the Philadelphia Museum of Art USA30 x 44  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Rome, From Mount Aventine is an 1835 painting by J M W Turner, based on drawings made by him in the city in 1828. It shows a view of the city of Rome from the Aventine Hill.

It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1836, where it was described by the Morning Post as ‘one of those amazing pictures by which Mr Turner dazzles the imagination and confounds all criticism: it is beyond praise’.

It had been commissioned from Turner by Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro of Novar and remained in his family collection until it was bought by the 5th Earl of Roseberry in 1878. It then remained in the Roseberry collection until 2014. It was sold at Sotheby’s in London on 3 December 2014 to a telephone bidder for £30.3m including buyer’s premium, having had an estimate of £15-20m.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Rome, From Mount Aventine1835Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-19]

Private Collection92 x 125  
Turner drew on his considerable experience as a marine painter and the brilliance of his technique as a watercolorist to create this view, in which the foundations of the palaces of Venice merge into the waters of the lagoon by means of delicate reflections.

He based the composition on a rather slight pencil drawing made during his first trip to Venice, in 1819, but the painting is really the outcome of his second visit, in 1833. He exhibited this canvas to wide acclaim at the Royal Academy, London, in 1835.
[Source: metmuseum.org]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Venice, from the Porch of Madonna Della Salute1835Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-20]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York USA91 x 122  

Image source: artsandculture.google.com
This was one of the most important and influential canvases of Turner’s later career. Exhibited at the Royal Academy early in 1836, Juliet and her Nurse became the subject of a vicious attack by the Reverend John Eagles in an article published in ‘Blackwood’s Magazine’ later in the year.

Eagles wrote that the picture was ‘a strange jumble’, but one of his chief complaints was that Turner should have chosen to set this scene from Romeo and Juliet in Venice rather than Verona. No doubt Turner’s decision to place Shakespeare’s famous heroine in Venice was influenced by the romantic atmosphere of the city; in the foreground she is seen musing on her new-found love.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Juliet and Her Nurse1836Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-21]

Colección de Arte Amalia Lacroze de Fortabat, Olga Cossettini 141, C1107 CABA, Argentina92 x 123  
‘View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm’ is know as The Oxbow.

This work is a masterpiece of American landscape painting, laden with possible interpretations. The picture was shown at the National Academy of Design in 1836. Cole’s interest in the subject probably dates from his 1829–32 trip to Europe, when Basil Hall criticised Americans’ inattentiveness to their scenery.

Cole responded with a landscape that lauds the uniqueness of America by encompassing ‘a union of the picturesque, the sublime, and the magnificent’, juxtaposing untamed wilderness and pastoral settlement to emphasise the possibilities of the national landscape, pointing to the future prospect of the American nation.
[Source: metmuseum.org]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Oxbow, The1836Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Cole, Thomas1801-1848, aged 49American painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-22]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA131 x 193  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
The Course of Empire is a series of five paintings created by Thomas Cole in the years 1833–1836. It is notable in part for reflecting popular American sentiments of the times, when many saw pastoralism as the ideal phase of human civilization, fearing that empire would lead to gluttony and inevitable decay.
[Source: metmuseum.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
The Savage State (1 of 5 of Course of Empire)1836Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Cole, Thomas1801-1848, aged 48American painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-23]

New York Historical Society Museum, 170 Central Park West, New York, NY 10024, USA100 x 161  
This is a fine example of the type of grandiose painting that Hayez produced on historical and literary subjects. He was often inspired by themes taken from the Middle Ages. Hidden under historical symbolism, they were really about the Italian Risorgimento. Similarly, classical subjects were chosen to evade censorship.
[Source: wga.hu]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Crusaders Thirsting near Jerusalem1836-50Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Hayez, Francesco1791-1882Italian painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-24]

Royal Palace of Turin, Turin, Italy  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
The Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand was an 1838 unfinished oil-on-canvas painting by French artist Eugène Delacroix.

Originally a double portrait, it was later cut in two and sold off as separate pieces. It showed composer Frédéric Chopin playing the piano while writer George Sand sits to his right, listening and sewing (a favorite activity of hers). The sitters were lovers at the time, and both were close friends of the artist.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Frédéric Chopin, Portrait of (and George Sand)1838Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Delacroix, Eugène1486-1530, aged 43French painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-25]

Musée du Louvre, Paris France46 x 38  
Turner’s painting shows the final journey of the Temeraire, as the ship is towed from Sheerness in Kent along the river Thames to Rotherhithe in south-east London, where it was to be scrapped.

The veteran warship had played a distinguished role in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, but by 1838 was over 40 years old and had been sold off by the Admiralty.

When exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1839, the painting was accompanied by lines Turner had adapted from Thomas Campbell’s poem, Ye Mariners of England: ‘The flag which braved the battle and the breeze, / No longer owns her.’

It is unlikely that Turner witnessed the ship being towed; instead, he imaginatively recreated the scene using contemporary reports.

Set against a blazing sunset, the last voyage of the Temeraire takes on a greater symbolic meaning, as the age of sail gives way to the age of steam.
[Source: nationalgallery.org.uk]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Fighting Temeraire, The1839Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-42]

National Gallery, London UK91 x 122  
The Slave Ship, originally titled Slavers Throwing overboard the Dead and Dying—Typhon coming on, is a painting by the British artist J M W. Turner, first exhibited at The Royal Academy of Arts in 1840. It is now on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. In this classic example of a Romantic maritime painting, Turner depicts a ship visible in the background, sailing through a tumultuous sea of churning water and leaving scattered human forms floating in its wake. Turner was possibly moved to paint The Slave Ship after reading about the slave ship Zong in The History and Abolition of the Slave Trade by Thomas Clarkson
Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Slave Ship, The1840Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-26]
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston USA91 x 123

Image source: frick.org
In spite of its title — invented by the Victorian critic John Ruskin — this watercolor does not directly depict the aftermath of a shipwreck. Several elements do, however, imbue the coastal scene with a sense of solitude and even despair: the intense crimson clouds, the “feeble blood-stain on the sand” (to quote Ruskin), and the lone howling dog.
[Source: frick.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Dawn after the Wreck1841WtrclrGouacheLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-27]

Frick Collection, New York USA37 x 25  
Turner painted many pictures exploring the extreme weather at sea. Here, the steam-boat is shown at the centre of a storm. There is a story that Turner was tied to the mast of a ship during a storm so he could paint the event from memory. This is now thought to be untrue, but it has been used as an example of Turner’s direct engagement with the world around him.
The small ship, being overpowered by water and wind, can be seen as a symbol of human’s efforts to overcome the forces of nature.
[Source; tate.org.uk]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Snow Storm: Steamboat off a Harbour’s Mouth1842OilGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-28]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK91 x 122  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
American landscape painting came of age in the mid-nineteenth century. Cole and his colleagues carefully recorded every aspect of nature, from the blazing sunset to the humblest plant, and were also instrumental in creating a new lyrical spaciousness in landscape painting. Like many other artists of his generation, Cole sought to express the spiritual in the actual.

Here, a small lake, a cloudless sky, a fallen tree, and a lone Indian evoke the peace and tranquility of the American wilderness.
[Source: dia.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
American Lake Scene1844Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Cole, Thomas1801-1848, aged 47American painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-29]

Detroit Institute of Arts, 5204 Woodward Ave, Detroit, MI 48202, USA69 x 84  
A steam engine comes towards us as it crosses the Maidenhead Railway Bridge in the rain.

Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the bridge was completed in 1838. We are looking east towards London as the train heads to the west. The exaggeratedly abrupt foreshortening of the viaduct, which our eye follows to the horizon, suggests the speed with which the train bursts into view through the rain.

Turner lightly brushed in a hare roughly midway along the rail track to represent the speed of the natural world in contrast to the mechanised speed of the engine. The animal is now invisible as the paint has become transparent with age, but it can be seen in an 1859 engraving of the painting.

Turner frequently painted scenes of contemporary life and was particularly interested in industry and technology. As he often used new forms of transport, including steam trains, it is unlikely that the painting is a rejection of modernity. Instead, he saw both the train and the bridge as subjects worthy of being painted.
[Source: nationalgallery.org.uk]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Rain, Steam and Speed – The Great Western Railway1844Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-43]

National Gallery, London UK91 x 122  
Norham sits on the river Tweed in Northumberland, on the English side of the Scottish border. Turner visited Norham in 1801 and 1831, creating work after each visit. Turner made this unfinished canvas late in his career. He uses colour to express the blazing light that merges the building and the landscape. It is one of a group of paintings Turner based on compositions from his ‘Liber Studiorum’ (‘Book of Studies’) a set of seventy engravings he had made from his watercolour compositions.
Image source: tate.org.uk
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Norham Castle, Sunrise1845Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Turner, JMW (Joseph Mallord William)1775 – 1851, aged 76English painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-30]
Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK91 x 122
Image source: metmuseum.orgIn the summer of 1845, Bingham returned to his St. Louis home from a winter stay in central Missouri, bringing with him several paintings and sketches.

This was one of those works that he later sent to New York’s American Art-Union, a subscription-based organization that promoted American art nationally through exhibitions and the distribution of popular prints. Titled by the artist French Trader & Half breed Son, the Art-Union changed it to the more generic and less controversial Fur Traders Descending the Missouri.

Bingham, who began his career as a portraitist, produced this distinctive genre painting with little precedent in his oeuvre. The tranquil scene, with its luminous atmosphere, idealized the American frontier for the benefit of an Eastern audience.
[Source: metmuseum.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Fur Traders Descending the Missouri1845OilGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Bingham, George Caleb1811-1879American painterRomanticism/
Luminism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-31]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA74 x 97  
The Ninth Wave is probably Aivazovsky’s most famous and popular work. Originally acquired for the Imperial Hermitage, it was one of the first paintings in the collection of the Emperor Alexander III Russian Museum in 1897.

The ninth wave, in popular legend the most terrible, powerful and destructive wave, is fast approaching. Yet the darkness of the night is broken by the light of hope.

A small group of people cling to the wreckage of the ship’s mast, which seems a more reliable refuge at dawn than it did in the darkness of the night. The desperate attempts to survive will conquer the stormy sea.

The Ninth Wave was, of course, also interpreted allegorically. The painting acquired symbolic meaning for many generations, instilling faith in the victory of man, humanity and life.
[Source: artsandculture.google.com]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Ninth Wave, The18500Landscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Aivazovsky, Ivan 1817-1900, aged 82Russian (Armenian) oainterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-32]

State Russian Museum, Inzhenernaya St, 4, St Petersburg, Russia, 191186221 x 332  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Leutze’s depiction of Washington’s attack on the Hessians at Trenton on December 25, 1776, was a great success in America and in Germany.

Leutze began his first version of this subject in 1849. It was damaged in his studio by fire in 1850 and, although restored and acquired by the Bremen Kunsthalle, was again destroyed in a bombing raid in 1942.

In 1850, Leutze began this version of the subject, which was placed on exhibition in New York during October of 1851. At this showing Marshall O. Roberts bought the canvas for the then-enormous sum of $10,000. In 1853, M. Knoedler published an engraving of it. Many studies for the painting exist, as do copies by other artists.
[Source: metmuseum.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Washington Crossing the Delaware1851Oil/CanvasHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Leutze, Emanuel Gottlieb1816-1868, aged 52American painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-33]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA378 x 648  
The Young Martyr represents both Delaroche’s emphasis on historical accuracy and flair for drama and emotionality in painting.

The Young Martyr depicts the historical martyrdom of a Christian woman, while, at the same time, an otherworldly halo, emanating above the Martyr’s forehead, emphasises the painting’s dramatic, emotional effect.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: National Galleries of Scotland
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Young Martyr, The1855Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Delaroche, Paul 1797-1856, aged 59French painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-34]

Musée du Louvre, Paris France171 x 147  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Chatterton‘ is Wallis’s earliest and most famous work. The picture created a sensation when it was first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1856, accompanied by the following quotation from Marlowe: Cut is the branch that might have grown full straight/
And burned is Apollo’s laurel bough
.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Death of Chatterton18560Portrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Wallis, Henry1830 – 1916, aged 86British painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-35]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK90 x 121  
The canvas was shown at the Brera Exhibition of 1859 which, held a few months after the entry of Victor Emanuel II and Napoleon III into Milan, and celebrated the successful conclusion of the struggles of the Risorgimento.

It did not enter the Pinacoteca until 1886, as a legacy from Alfonso Maria Visconti, who had commissioned the picture.

It is one of the emblematic images of the Pinacoteca and perhaps the most widely reproduced Italian painting of the whole of the 19th century, created with the aim of symbolising the love of the motherland and thirst for life on the part of the young nation. The nation had emerged from the Second War of Independence and now placed so many hopes in its new rulers.

It proved an immediate and resounding success both for its patriotic values and for the medieval inspiration of the subject, typical of the Romantic taste of the time.

The public was enthusiastic about the daring kiss but also recognised the patriotic message enshrined in the colours: the red stockings, green lapel on the cloak and blue and white gown allude to the flags of Italy and France.
[Source: pinacotecabrera.org]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Kiss, The1859Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Hayez, Francesco1791-1882Italian painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-36]

Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan Italy110 x 80  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Cotopaxi, the quintessential nineteenth-century vision of nature’s sublime and terrifying power, was painted on commission for the well-known book collector and philanthropist James Lenox when Church was at the height of his fame.

The painting made a tremendous impact on the American art public, who perceived it as a geological parable of the Civil War then in progress.

The viewer’s attention is focused on two principal motifs—the burning disc of the rising sun in its contest with the smoldering volcano. The colours radiate with fiery intensity against a low, pearlescent skyline. In this cosmic drama of light dispelling darkness, Church mirrors the contemporary tragedy of the Civil War and offers hope for its resolution through the cross formed by the sun’s reflection on the lake.

No other representation so summarized American ideals at this critical point in the nation’s history.
[Source: dia.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Cotopaxi1862Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Church, Frederic Edwin1826-1900American painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-37]

Detroit Institute of Arts, 5201 Woodward Ave, Detroit, MI 48202, USA122 x 216  
The subject of this intensely Romantic work is derived from canto XXXIII of Dante’s Inferno, which describes how the Pisan traitor Count Ugolino della Gherardesca, his sons, and his grandsons were imprisoned in 1288 and died of starvation.

Carpeaux’s visionary statue, executed in 1865–67, reflects the artist’s passionate reverence for Michelangelo, specifically for The Last Judgment (1536–41) in the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican, Rome, as well as his own painstaking concern with anatomical realism.
[Source: metmuseum.org]

Image source: metmuseum.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Ugolino and his Sons1865-7Marblehttps://ultcult.com/1-9-4-8-sculptureSculpture
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Carpeaux, Jean-Baptiste1827-75, aged 48French painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-38]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA0  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Camille Corot painted this landscape of Ville d’Avray, a village south of Paris where his father had an estate, from the edge of one of its ponds.

He gives a hint of the rhythms of rural life with various figures scattered throughout, most notably the peasant in the central foreground. Corot’s painting displays a hazy, almost smoky atmosphere of silvery grays and greens.
[Source: brooklynmuseum.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Ville d’Avrayc1867Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Corot, Jean-Baptiste-Camille 1796-1875, aged 78French painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-39]

Brooklyn Museum of Art, 200 Eastern Pkwy, Brooklyn, NY 11238, USA55 x 80  
This picture is one of the depersonalised figures that Corot painted in the third part of his career. The position and the expression of the sitter, Berthe Goldschmidt, posing in an Italian dress that Corot had brought back with him.

It is almost a pastiche of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. The small leaf standing out on the young girl’s brow, formerly thought to be a pearl, gave the picture its title.
[Source: wga.hu]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Woman with a Pearlc1870Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Corot, Jean-Baptiste-Camille 1796-1875, aged 78French painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-40]

Musée du Louvre, Paris France55 x 70  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Hammershoi, a Danish painter, is known for his quiet and calm paintings. He is most famous for his lack of bright colors, and instead, opts for muted ones. His work is often described as melancholy, as the figures are always turned away from the viewer.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Interior with a Girl at the Clavier1901Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Hammershoi, Wilhelm1864-1916, aged 51Danish painterRomanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1361-41]

Private Collection0  
This was the first of many portraits by Sutherland, mostly of either friends or distinguished elderly people.

He met Maugham, the famous novelist and dramatist, at St Jean Cap Ferrat, and was invited to paint his portrait. Maugham was then aged seventy-five. The bamboo stool and background colour, like that of the robes of Buddhist monks, were intended to refer to the setting of many of Maugham’s novels and short stories in the Far East.

The portrait was painted from drawings made by Sutherland during about ten one hour sittings with Maugham.
[Source: tate.org.uk]

Image source: tate.org.uk
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Somerset Maugham, Portrait of1949Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Sutherland, Graham Vivian1903 – 1980, aged 76English artistNeo-Romanticism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms):  
Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK137 x 64  

Forward to 1.3.7 African Art (800-1897)
Back to 1.3.6 Romanticism A – Back to 1.3.5 Neoclassicism (1750-1830)

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