1.1.3 Fertile Crescent (13,000 – 200 BCE)

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The first human civilizations emerged within the ‘Fertile Crescent’ of Mesopotamia, sat between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The ready supply of water and good soil fertility attracted, and was able to sustain, ever-larger settled communities, these included the Natufians, Ubadians, Sumerians, Phoenicians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians and Hittites. This was spread by these and the Scythians and Persians along the Kor and Pulvar rivers and through the Zagros mountains. Other civilizations evolved separately around the Yellow River in China, the Nile River of Egypt, and in the Indus Valley, (today’s Pakistan and India). Civilization was further distributed westward by the Macedonians, Greeks, Minoans and Myceneans.

1.1.3.1 Natufians
(13,000-9,500 BCE)

1.1.3.2 Ubaidians
(6,500-3,800 BCE)

1.1.3.3 Sumerians (4,100-1,750 BCE)
1.1.3.4 Phoenicians (2,500-539 BCE)
1.1.3.5 Akkadians
(2,350-2,150 BCE)

1.1.3.6 Assyrians (3,000-609 BCE)
1.1.3.7 Babylonians
(1,894-539 BCE)

1.1.3.8 Hittites
(1,600-1,178 BCE)

1.1.3.9 Scythians/Persians
(900-200 BCE)

Forward to 1.1.3.1 Natufians – Forward to 1.1.4 Early Classical
Back to 1.1.2 Ancient Far East

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