1.5.5.2 Expressionism II (1917-1936)

Forward to 1.5.5.3 Ashcan School (1892-1919)
Back to 1.5.5.1 Expressionism I (1905-1917)

QUICK LINKS:
The Embrace, Shiele
Large Seated Nude, Modigliano
Reclining Woman with green stockings, Schiele
Reclining Nude, Modigliani
Self Portrait with red scarf, Beckmann
Jacque and Bertha Lipchitz, Modigliano
Jeanne Hebuterne, Modigliano
Girl with braids, Modigliano
Red Poppies, Nolde
Abstract Head, von Jawlensky
Two Women Running on the Beach, Picasso
Woman in White, Picasso
Oscar Miestschaninoff, Soutine
Flag over the Town Hall, Utrillo
The Goldfish, Klee
Journalist Silvia von Harden, Dix
Pillars of Society, Grosz
Poet Max Hermann-Neise, Grosz
Page Boy at Maxim’s, Soutine
Self-Portrait in a Tuxedo, Beckmann
Figure Five in Gold, Demuth
Madeleine Castaing, Soutine
A Married Couple, Grosz
Classic Landscape, Sheeler
Christ on the Cross, Roualt
The Beginning, Beckmann
London, View of the Thames in the Evening, Kokoschka

[1551-35]

No matter what European museum of classical or contemporary art you find yourself in, there will be nudity, a lot of female body, a little less male.

But only the paintings of Egon Schiele cause a strange awkwardness and a panicky desire to turn away after a few minutes of study. And the point is not at all in the piquancy of the scenes depicted, but in the fact that the artist depicted something more than nakedness, he exposed the souls of his subjects.

There is one tone Schiele never used in his portrayal of sexual passion and desire — he never was playful or giggling. His sensuality is desperate and painful, sacred and salvific. I paint the light pouring from all bodies, Schiele said.
[Source: arthive.com]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Embrace, The1917Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Schiele, Egon1890 – 1918, aged 28Austrian painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-36]

Osterreichischegallerie, Prinz Eugen-Straße 27, 1030 Wien, Austria98 x 169  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
 
Amedeo Modigliani was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who mainly worked in France.

In 1916 he was commissioned by his friend and art dealer Leopold Zborowski to paint a series of nudes.

Large Seated Nude features a woman sensually gazing at the viewer, her nude body partially covered by a piece of white fabric. The use of warm reds and pinks gives the work a sumptuous feel.
[Source: kingandmcgaw.com]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Large Seated Nude1917Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Modigliani, Amedeo Clement1884 – 1920, aged 35Italian painter/sculptorExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-37]

Private Collection92 x 60  
From about 1914 on, Schiele evolved a more accurate style of rendering. In the process, his depictions of the female figure became more conventionally beautiful but lost something of their frenzied intensity.

The artist’s lines, formerly jagged and searching, became smooth and sure, capturing the curves of the body with unswerving accuracy. the complicated retracing, hatching, and scrolled embellishments seen in his earlier work were replaced by single, perfect strokes. Colour always followed line. Schiele habitually began with a base glaze of ochre or brown, which defined the principal volumes.

Over this he superimposed brief dabs of brighter gouache, mapping out salient bulges and concavities and describing key protuberances such as knuckles or cheekbones. The relatively three-dimensional approach which he used for flesh and drapery contrasted with the bolder stylization of hair and stockings. In the latter areas, the dense paint surface was essentially shaped by the flow of Schiele’s brush.
[Source: egon-schiele.com]

Image source: egon-schiele.com
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Reclining Woman with Green Stockings1917Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Schiele, Egon1890 – 1918, aged 28Austrian painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-38]

Private collection0  

Image source: tate.org.uk
 Modigliani’s celebrated series of reclining nudes, begun in 1916, is influenced by Italian Renaissance representations of Venus and other idealized female figures. In this painting from 1917, the model’s stylised, outlined body, seen close-up and from above.

Unlike depictions of Venus from the Renaissance to the nineteenth century, in which female nudity is couched in mythology or allegory, Modigliani provocatively presents his Reclining Nude without any such context, highlighting the painting’s eroticism.
[Source: metmuseum.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Reclining Nude1917Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Modigliani, Amedeo Clement1884 – 1920, aged 35Italian painter/sculptorExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-39]

Staatsgalerie, Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 30-32, 70173 Stuttgart, Germany72 x 116  
Backman was a German painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, and writer. Although he is classified as an Expressionist artist, he rejected both the term and the movement.

In the 1920s, he was associated with the New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit), an outgrowth of Expressionism that opposed its introverted emotionalism. His work became full of horrifying imagery and distorted forms with combination of brutal realism and social criticism.

His fortunes changed with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, whose dislike of Modern Art quickly led to its suppression by the state. In 1933, the Nazi government called Beckmann a ‘cultural Bolshevik’ and dismissed him from his teaching position at the Art School in Frankfurt.

In 1937 the government confiscated more than 500 of his works from German museums, putting several on display in the notorious Degenerate Art exhibition in Munich.

The day after Hitler’s radio speech about degenerate art in 1937, Beckmann left Germany with his second wife, Quappi, for the Netherlands.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Self-Portrait with a Red Scarf1917OilPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Beckmann, Max Carl Friederich1884 – 1950, aged 66German painter/sculptorExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-40]

Staatsgalerie, Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 30-32, 70173 Stuttgart, Germany80 x 60  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Lipchitz commissioned Modigliani to paint this portrait on the occasion of his marriage to the Russian poet Berthe Kitrosser, as a way of helping his troubled friend financially. The double portrait is one of only three in the artist’s oeuvre and, according to Lipchitz, took two days to paint.

Modigliani made about twenty drawings on the first day; the next day, he declared the picture finished. At the modest price of what Lipchitz remembered as ‘ten francs per sitting and a little alcohol’.

However, he persuaded Modigliani to work on the portrait for another two weeks in an effort to provide more financial assistance to his friend.

Despite Modigliani’s exceptional talent, his work found a market only after his death in 1920, which was hastened by tuberculosis and his legendary bohemian lifestyle.
[Source: artic.edu]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Jacque and Bertha Lipchitz, Portrait of1917Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Modigliani, Amedeo Clement1884 – 1920, aged 35Italian painter/sculptorExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-41]

Art Institute of Chicago, IL81 x 54  
Little known outside of Paris during his lifetime, Modigliani is now recognized as one of the greatest figurative painters of the early twentieth century. His distinctive nudes and portraits of friends from the vibrant artistic community of Montmartre display his characteristic use of bold contours, long oval faces, and elongated bodies.

Jeanne Hébuterne was a young aspiring artist when she met Modigliani in March 1917. They fell in love and moved to the Côte d’Azur, where Jeanne gave birth to their daughter. After returning to Paris in May 1919, Modigliani’s health deteriorated, the result of alcohol and drug abuse, poverty, and childhood afflictions. The artist died on January 24, 1920; Jeanne, pregnant with their second child, died by suicide two days later.
[Source: metmuseum.org]

Image source: metmuseum.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Jeanne Hebuterne, Portrait of1918Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Modigliani, Amedeo Clement1884 – 1920, aged 35Italian painter/sculptorExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-42]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA92 x 60  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Modigliani was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern style characterized by a surreal elongation of faces, necks, and figures that were not received well during his lifetime, but later became much sought-after.

When I know your soul, I will paint your eyes, Amedeo Modigliani.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Girl with Braids1924Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Modigliani, Amedeo Clement1893 – 1983, aged 90Spanish painter/sculptorExpressionism/ Surrealism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-43]

Nagoya City Art Museum, 460-0008 Aichi, Nagoya, Naka Ward, Sakae, 2 Chome−17−2566 x 93  
Although Emil Nolde learnt much from the masters of Impressionism, and later came to be regarded as an important figure in the German Expressionist movement, he was reluctant to commit himself to groups. His paintings often feel solitary.

Nolde had not contrived this garden for painting’s sake, he happened upon it as a subject quite by chance. The subject seized hold of him. It led him on to new and ever more colourfully energised imaginative elsewheres. It helped to lever open the doors of perception.
[Source: independent.co.uk]

Image source: pinterest.com
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Red Poppies (Roter Mohn)1920Wtclr/PprStill Life
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Nolde, Emil1867 – 1956, aged 88German-Danish painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-44]

Philadelphia Museum of Art34 x 48  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
At the end of World War I (1918), von Jawlensky started to draw ‘mystic heads’ or ‘faces of saints’.

He gave them poetic titles like Moonlight or Inner Look. Like Claude Monet who worked in series, he ended up focusing on a single theme. Its appearance remained more or less constantly the same, yet varied in the use of the brush, the colourings and in the drawing, in order to bring up new aspects of an until then still unknown transcendent spirituality.

Unlike Wassily Kandinsky, he never moved into pure abstraction and always based his forms on nature.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Abstract Head1921Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
von Jawlensky, Alexej1864-1941, aged 77Russian painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-45]

Private collection31 x 24  
The rounded monumental figures of Picasso’s neo-Classical period of the early 1920s. The vivid blues and the flowing hair here are anchored in the elongated brown limbs, contorted yet supple. There’s a sense of fullness that makes you feel that this is how life must be lived – and war must be abandoned.

It’s a known fact that the women in Picasso’s paintings are the women who inhabited his life at various times. His works are littered with references to artist model Amelie Lang, Eva Gouel, ballerina Olga Khokhlova, Marie-Thérèse Walter, surrealist photographer Dora Maar, art student Françoise Gilot, Genevieve Laporte and Jacqueline Roque. They gave of themselves to his art and his work is revealing of their personalities and the kind of relationship he had with each.
[Source: pablopicasso.org]


Image source: art-picasso.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Two Women Running on the Beach (The Race) 1922Gouache/PlywoodGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Picasso, Pablo1881 – 1973, aged 91Spanish painterExpressionism/ Neoclassicism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-46]

Musée Picasso, Paris, France32 x 41  

Image source: metmuseum.org
Picasso painted this work, one of his best-known neoclassical pictures, upon his return to Paris after a summer sojourn in Cap d’Antibes.

There, he and his wife, Olga, socialized with the charismatic American expatriates Gerald and Sara Murphy. Because Sara Murphy had beautifully regular features, some writers believe that this canvas is a portrait of her. However, photographs that Picasso took of Olga posing in front of related classical heads demonstrate that at least she thought they were depictions of her.

This picture belonged to the New York collector Lillie P. Bliss, one of the founders of the Museum of Modern Art. She bequeathed the painting to the Modern, from whom The Met purchased the work in 1951 as part of a cooperative agreement.
[Source: metmuseum.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Woman in White1923Oil/Crayon/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Picasso, Pablo1881 – 1973, aged 91Spanish painterExpressionism/ Neoclassicism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-47]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA99 x 80  
Chaïm Soutine was a Russian painter who made a major contribution to the expressionist movement while living and working in Paris.

Inspired by classic painting in the European tradition, exemplified by the works of Rembrandt, Chardin and Courbet, Soutine developed an individual style more concerned with shape, color, and texture over representation, which served as a bridge between more traditional approaches and the developing form of Abstract Expressionism.

This is a portrait of sculptor Miestschaninoff.
[Source: Wikimedia comoons]

Image source: visual-arts-cork.com
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Oscar Miestschaninoff1923OilPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Soutine, Chaim1893 – 1943 , aged 50Russian painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-48]

Musée National d’Art Moderne, Place Georges-Pompidou, 75004 Paris, France83 x 65  

Image source: musee-orangerie.fr
In 1909, Utrillo’s health began to deteriorate, preventing him at times from painting outside. At that time he was either in a sanatorium or being supervised by one of his family in the studio or a hotel room. His mother, the artist Suzanne Valadon, and her second husband, brought him postcards so that he could find new subjects and continue working.

It is highly likely that this canvas was inspired by a card of the village of Maixe, near Lunéville in Lorraine in the east of France.

This work is more colourful and more animated than others painted by Utrillo between 1910 and 1920, and now in the Musée de l’Orangerie. The white walls of the houses contrast with their red roofs. The edges of the track are green, matching the garden gate. The grey and brown bell tower of the church stands out of the left, above a group of men and women in conversation.

Two women stand face to face, their movement captured as if in a photograph. One couple has left the group and moved away to the right. The figures are a mixture of women in long skirts, men in their blue working jackets and soldiers in red and blue uniforms. As for the flag, Utrillo placed the French tricolore in the centre of the painting to attract the viewer’s eye.
[Source: musee-orangerie.fr]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Flag over the Town Hall (La Mairie au drapeau)1924Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Utrillo, Maurice1883 – 1955, aged 71French painterExpressionism – Paris school
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-49]

Musée de l’Orangerie, Jardin Tuileries, 75001 Paris, France98 x 130  
The Goldfish is one of a number of paintings produced by Klee in 1925 and which feature fish as a subject.

Paul Klee was a highly accomplished colourist and his use of rich deep tones of blue, gold and red in this painting clearly shows his abilities.

The viewer is transported into a dark under-water world in which one fish predominates. This enormous golden fish swims serenely along, occupying the majority of the picture, whilst the other, smaller fishes seem to be rushing to get away and out of its path.

The bright gold colour, the scratchy red fins and the large circular pink eye all contribute to the brilliance and prominence of this imposing creature. By contrast, the background is dark and quiet.

The simple graphic quality of the blue weeds that surround the fish is typical of Klee’s work at the time. They bring a still, cold quality to the water.
[Source: paul-klee.org]

Image source: paul-klee.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Goldfish, The1925Oil/WC/PprBdAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Klee, Paul1879 – 1940, aged 60Swiss-German artistExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-50]

Hamburger Kunsthalle48 x 68  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
On a red and pink background, without decoration and opening, which evokes the angle of a cafe, the androgynous looking woman appears sitting cross-legged in front of a round table. She is wearing a red and black plaid dress with a high collar. She holds a lit cigarette in her right hand while the left rests on the right thigh. The fingers are long with slightly protruding bones.

The face is triangular with a pointed chin. A long, clean nose separates the eyes surrounded by dark circles. She wears a monocle on the right eye. Her brown hair is very short. On her pale skin stands out the slightly ajar mouth highlighted with a dark red lipstick. The woman is wearing light stockings, the rolled edge of which can be seen on the right leg. The woman’s feet are not visible, because the portrait stops at mid-calf.

On the table with a white marble top are placed a cigarette box marked with the name Sylvia von Harden, a matchbox bearing the German eagle and a conical glass three-quarters full.

The round shapes of the art nouveau furniture contrast with the geometric shapes of the character and the objects.

The absence of decorative background elements accentuates her strong ‘presence’, with nothing distracting the viewers eye. The journalist poses three-quarters and looks sideways between the plane of the painting and the perpendicular one, which links the viewer to the portrait.

The painting was bought from the artist in 1961 by the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Journalist Silvia von Harden, Portrait of the1926Oil/Tmp/WoodPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Dix, Otto1891 – 1969, aged 78German artistExpressionism -New Objectivity
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-51]

Musée National d’Art Moderne, Place Georges-Pompidou, 75004 Paris, France121 x 89  
Pillars of Society is not about the rise of national socialism but rather a portrait ofthe pillars of what used to be the Second Reich in their utterly downtrodden state during the Weimar Republic.

On top right you have the Freikorps, paramilitary organisations dressing as if they were the old Reichswehr but mainly concerned with beating up striking workers and terrorising minorities. They appeared because the Versailles agreement rendered many German officers unemployed.

Below there is the Catholic clergy. The Catholic centre party was the main conservative force in the Weimar German parliament. Today the German catholics pride themselves that in 1932 they didn’t vote for the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP aka the Nazi Party. In practice it didn’t make any difference. They voted for the Centre Party which was just as antisemitic and, unlike the communists and social democrats, voted for Hitler’s ‘enabling law’.

Under the priest there is a guy bearing both the Social Democratic slogan Socialism means Employment and the Second Reich flag preferred by Nationalists and by Monarchists. He is a ‘politician’.

Below there is a journalist with a chamber pot on his head. The names of the newspapers are nonsense.

Grosz was bemused that parties could try to combine previously mutually exclusive demands.
[Source: reddit.com]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Pillars of Society1926Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Grosz, George1893 – 1959, aged 65German painterExpressionism -New Objectivity
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-52]

Nationalgalerie, Berlin Germany108 x 200  

Image source: moma.org
George Grosz details the lines, bumps, veins, and ruddiness of head and hands of his friend Max Hermann-Neisse’s, picturing him almost within arm’s reach.

Herrmann-Neisse, a poet and Berlin’s leading cabaret critic, shared the same politics, sense of humour, and cynical outlook as Grosz.

Though Grosz was known for his harshly critical caricatures of corrupt figures, this portrait reveals a different side of the artist, capable of portraying his friend with sympathy. Using a softer palette, Grosz renders his friend’s face with a contemplative expression that perhaps reflects Herrmann-Neisse’s description of feeling completely at home’ in Grosz’s studio.

The artist and his subject spent many hours there, in sessions that produced more than thirty preparatory drawings for this portrait. Grosz represents his friend’s distinctive features, his hunched back and bald head, without the distortion so typical of the Expressionists. Instead, such flourishes are reserved for the upturned furniture and floral patterning in the painting’s background.
[Source: moma.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Poet Max Hermann-Neise, The1927Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Grosz, George1893 – 1959, aged 65German painterExpressionism -New Objectivity
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-53]

MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, 1 W 53rd St, New York, NY 10019, USA59 x 74  
Russian-born French artist Chaim Soutine was known for his highly individualistic style, characterized by the use of thick paint application, agitated brushwork, convulsive compositional rhythms, and the presence of disturbing psychological content.

Soutine is most popularly associated with his studies of choirboys and cooks and his series of page boys (Page Boy at Maxim’s,). Also well known are his paintings of hung poultry and carcasses of beef, which convey the colour and luminosity of putrescence. He obtained these effects by painting in as many as 40 different hues with as many brushes.

His work is closely related to early 20th-century Expressionism.
[Source: britannica.com]

Image source: albrightknox.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Page Boy at Maxim’s1927Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Soutine, Chaim1893 – 1943 , aged 50Russian painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-54]

Albright–Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo NY 14222130 x 66  

Image source: pinterest.com
Beckmann debuted this now iconic self-portrait at the fifty-third exhibition of the Berlin Secession in 1928. For critics of the day, it upstaged the work of his contemporaries, like Otto Dix and Max Pechstein. The effect is brutal, wrote one reviewer, but the work is surely in the spirit of the most recent art.

The perceived brutality referred less to the rawness of the subject’s direct gaze than to formal aspects of the painting’s execution: the thick application of pigment and the large planes of coluor, notably black. Half cast into deep shadow by an unseen light source, Beckmann’s face at close range resembles a mask.

Known to frequent elite conservative circles, the artist easily dons the elegant attire and ‘mask of the bourgeoisie, then launches his critique from within its own ranks.

Despite his avowed distance from politics, over the next decade Beckmann increasingly used figurative allegories to comment on present-day circumstances.
[Source: harvardartmuseums.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Self-Portrait in a Tuxedo1927Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Beckmann, Max Carl Friederich1884 – 1950, aged 66German painter/sculptorExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-55]

Harvard University Art Museums, 2 Quincy St, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA140 x 96  
Demuth completed eight abstract portraits between 1924 and 1929 as tributes to modern American artists, writers, and performers. Though not a physical likeness, Demuth created this portrait of his friend, the poet and physician William Carlos Williams, using imagery from Williams’s poem The Great Figure, which evokes the sights and sounds of a fire engine speeding down the street.

The intersecting lines, repeated ‘5’, round forms of the numbers, lights, street lamp, and blaring sirens of the red fire engine together infuse the painting with a vibrant, urban energy.
[Source: metmuseum.org]

Image source: metmuseum.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Figure Five in Gold1928Oil/BoardAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Demuth, Charles1883 – 1935, aged 51American painterExpressionism – Precisionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-56]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA91 x 76  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Soutine met the successful Parisian interior decorator and antiquarian Madeleine Castaing in 1920. She and her husband became one of the artist’s most important patrons during the following decade.

The portrait took six sittings in the artist’s Paris studio. Castaing’s fidgeting hands, awkwardly positioned legs, and tense facial expression convey her impatience and discomfort while posing.
[Source: metmusuem.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Madeleine Castaing. Portrait of 1928Oil/CanvasPortrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Soutine, Chaim1893 – 1943 , aged 50Russian painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-57]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA100 x 73  

Image source: tate.org.uk
The artist said that the watercolour A Married Couple belongs to a series of drawings and watercolours which he executed during the ‘twenties up to 1930. He worked on a kind of portfolio entitled Natural History of the German Middle Class, for which he also wrote a text.

Political events, however, interrupted his plans; he went to the United States and this portfolio was never finished.
The watercolour, or rather watercolour drawing was first done in thin pen, in general outlined with red ink, and later coloured (letter of 8 September 1955).
[Source: tate.org.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
A Married Couple1930Wtclr/PprPortrait, Genre painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Grosz, George1893 – 1959, aged 65German painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-61]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK66 x 47  

Image source: nga.gov
Classic Landscape: Charles Sheeler was a master of both painting and photography, his work in one medium influenced and shaped his work in the other. In 1927, he was commissioned to photograph the Ford Motor Company’s new River Rouge Plant near Detroit, then the world’s largest industrial complex, employing more than 75,000 workers producing Ford’s Model A, successor to the famed Model T. Sheeler’s photographs were used for the company’s advertising, but he found himself greatly inspired by the subject, which he declared ‘incomparably the most thrilling I have had to work with.’ In 1930, he began painting oils of the plant.
[Source: nga.gov}
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Classic Landscape1931Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Sheeler, Charles1883-1965,
aged 81
American painterExpressionism-
Precisionism
LOCATION:SIZE
(cms):
National Gallery of Art, Washington DC USA64 x 82
In a century when art and religion seemed to be going their separate ways, Georges Rouault was an anomaly: he was a notable modern artist whose work was clearly religious.

Critic Jean Grenier has argued that almost all of Rouault’s later images of Christ express his resurrection more than his passion. Christ on the cross has his head held high, John and the two Marys no longer cry out, rather they seem to be worshiping. And, typically, the hope they feel is reflected in the orange-yellow sky behind the cross.
[Source: imagejournal.org]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Christ on the Cross1936Acquatint etching/PprHistory Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rouault, Georges1871 – 1958, aged 85French painterExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-59]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA65 x 49  

Image source: metmuseum.org
As a child growing up in Leipzig, Germany, Beckmann was especially fond of illustrating imaginative journeys.

In The Beginning, Beckmann looks back to his childhood with fondness and humor. Completed in 1949 when the artist was sixty-five years old, the panels are autobiographical.

Beckmann’s memories of his schooldays in Germany are balanced by a dream fantasy on the right and left panels, respectively. In the central panel, childhood memories and dreamworlds intermingle. Deeply impacted by both World Wars and his exile from Germany, Beckmann’s work typically integrates tragic themes with expressionistic brushwork and bright colours. 
[Source: metmuseum.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Beginning, The1949Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Beckmann, Max Carl Friederich1884 – 1950, aged 66German painter/sculptorExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1551-60]

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY USA175 x 319  

Image source: tate.org.uk
Throughout his long career, Kokoschka developed a special affinity for riverscapes, painting river scenes in many major European cities, including Prague, Lyons, Dresden and Salzburg.

He painted and sketched many river views of London from 1925 to the early 1970s, most frequently looking up or downstream from buildings near Waterloo Bridge.

This view looks down river toward St Paul’s Cathedral. Painted during a hot October, the artist’s vantage point was the roof of the Shell-Mex building on the Strand. The picture was painted entirely on the spot without preliminary studies of any kind.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
London, View of the Thames in the Evening 1959Oil/CanvasLandscape
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Kokoschka, Oskar1886 – 1980, aged 93Austrian artistExpressionism
LOCATION:SIZE (cms):  
Tate Galleries, London UK110 x 140  

Forward to 1.5.5.3 Ashcan School (1892-1919)
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