1.1.4.5 Egypt new kingdom (1,549-1,077 BCE)

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QUICK LINKS:
EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY:
Axe of Ahmose I
Amenhotep I statue
Festival Temple of Thutmose III
Karnak Sphinxes
Hatshepsut Kneeling Statue/ Jar
Temple of Hatshepsut, Thebes
Ushabti of Akhenaten II
18th Dynasty Entertainments
Head of Amenhotep III and Jar
Colossal statue of Amenhotep III
Colossi of Memnon
Akhenaten ‘elongated’ statue
Nefertiti Bust
Amarna talatat
Akhenaten, Nefertiti and daughters/ Akhenaten worshiping Aten
Princesss Meritaten
Tomb-chapel of Nebamun images
Tutankhamun treasures
Tomb of Tutankhamen items
Horemheb Tomb

NINETEENTH DYNASTY:
Ramses I
Temple of Seti I
Hypostyle Hall
Ramses II conflicts
Ramses II Luxor statues
Ramses II Abu Simbel
Nefertari with Isis
Paramnekhu Shabti Box
Book of the Dead

TWENTIETH DYNASTY:
Setnakhte I tomb
Ramses III sarcophagus
Ramses IV statue
Ramses V mummy
Ramses VI head
Tomb of Amenherkhepshef
Ramses VII drawing
Ramses VIII relief
Portrait/Relief of Ramses IX

THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD:
Osiris, Isis and Horus
Pharaonic figures in ivory
Man, leopard skin, monkey, oryx
Head of Kushite ruler
Black Pharaohs
Boatbuilding relief

The New Kingdom ran from c1,560/1,550 to 1,077 BCE and spanned the eighteenth to twentieth dynasties. It was followed by the Third Intermediate Period (1,069-664 BCE) which consisted of the twenty-first to twenty-fifth dynasties.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY (1,550-1,292 BCE):

PHAROAHS OF THIS DYNASTY:
Ahmose 1 (1549-1524); Amenhotep I (1,524-1,503 BCE);
Thutmose I (1,503-1,493 BCE); Thutmose II (1,493-1.479 BCE);
Hatshepsut (1,479-1,458 BCE); Thutmose III (1,479-1.425 BCE);
Amenhotep II (1,327-1,397 BCE); Thutmose IV (1,397-1.388 BCE);
Amenhotep III (1,388-1,361 BCE); Amenhotep IV (1,351-1,334 BCE);
Smenkhkare (1,335-1,334 BCE); Neferneferuaten (1,334-1,332 BCE);
Tutankhamun (1,332-1,323 BCE); Ay ((1,323-1,319 BCE);
Horemheb (1,319-1,292 BCE)

The Eighteenth Dynasty was when Egypt reached the peak of its power and wealth. This dynasty is often termed Thutmosid given it had four pharaohs named Thutmose (Ed’s note: there were also four Amenhoteps?) The dynasty began with Ahmose I (1,550-1,525 BCE) and ended with its fifteenth pharaoh, Horemhen (1,319-1,292 BCE).

One of the more famous pharaohs of this dynasty is the tenth of this dynasty, Akhenaten, although for his first five years of his reign he was called Amenhotep IV, (1,351-1.334 BCE). His ‘Great King Wife’ was Nefertiti, her name literally means ‘the beautiful woman has come.’

Akhenaten and Nefertiti presided over perhaps Egypt’s wealthiest period and led a religious revolution by reducing the Egyptian pantheon to just one god, Aten the sun-disc. Akhenaten built a new capital city Amarna (aka Akhenaten) as part of his new focus on Aten. As a result Akhenaten is termed a heretic by some, an idealist by others

The other famous 18th dynasty pharaoh was Tutankhamun (1,342-1,325 BCE) famous for Lord Caernarvon and Howard Carter’s discovery of the 5,000 artefacts in his tomb and subsequently the supposed ‘curse’. However it had another fillip when a mummy was discovered in the KV55 tomb in the Valley of the Kings. This was claimed, but is as yet unconfirmed, as Akhenaten. But DNA testing proved it was Tutankhamun’s father. His mother was also found in that tomb, she was his father’s sister and is referenced cautiously as ‘the Younger Lady’. Tutankhamun’s short reign re-established the ancient Egyptian religon. His mummy revealed that Tutankhamun had bone necrosis and a deformed left foot, this required the use of a cane, several were present in the tomb. He had also been victim of scoliosis (curvature of the spine) and had contracted several varieties of malaria.

Tutankhamun took the throne at the age of eight or nine and died at twenty-six or seven. Ay (aka Kheperkheperure) became his vizier during his minority and later succeeded him as pharaph (1,323-1,319 BCE). Ay was the 18th dynasty’s penultimate pharaoh.

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a religious revolution by reducing the Egyptian pantheon to just one god, Aten the sun-disc. Discovered among the treasures of Queen Aahhotep II (mother of Ahmose I) was this ceremonial ‘Axe of Ahmose I’. The lower image shows the detail of the first 18th Dynasty Paraoah (1,549-1,524 BCE) slaying a Hyksos (Asiatic foreigner),
One of the few extant three-dimensional representations of the second pharaoh, Amenhotep I (1,524-1,503 BCE). He was the son of Ahmose I. He had had two elder brothers and was not originally expected to ascend as pharaoh. He reigned for 21 years, holding on to his father’s territorial victories in Nubia and the Delta. He sustained the rebuilding of temples and innovated by separating his tomb from his mortuary temple; this became the future trend. Ths statue is on show at the Museum of Finae Arts, Boston USA.
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Thutmose I (1,503-1,493 BCE) mounted expeditions into the Levant and Nubia, expanding Egypt more than previously. He is perhaps the first to be buried in the Valley of the Kings (some suggest Amenhotep 1 may have preceded him). In general the dates aroud this period are much discussed.
These pillars at Karnak in Luxor are made of sandstone and mud brick, then painted. They form part of the Festival Temple of Thutmose III. It is suggested that they look like tent poles, perhaps something he was very familiar with from his many campaigns.
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During the New Kingdom the temple complex of Karnak was built in Thebes to become the principal religious centre of the god Amun-Re. This avenue of human-headed sphinxes was originally 3km long with 1,350 sphinxes. The road they formed was used only once a year for the Opet festival, when effigies of the gods Amun and Mut were paraded along its length. to celebrate their marriage.
This large kneeling statue is of the joint-fifth 18th dynasty pharaoh, Hatshepsut (1.479-1.458 BCE). It is fabricated in grantite, 262 x 80 x 137. She was the daughter, sister, and wife of a king, sharing the throne with Thutmose III. She was the second (confirmed) female pharaoh (the first being Sobekneferu); a number had acted as regent, but not pharaoh. Her name meant ‘foremost of noble ladies’. The jar below shows her cartouche:

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Hatshepsut built the colonaded mortuary temple Temple of Pakhet at Deir el-Bahari on the west bank of the Nile, it is near the Valley of the Kings.
Below is the remains of a relief within the temple:

Image source: Wikimedia commons

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This Ushabti of Amenhotep II is dated to 1,427–1,400 BCE. Fabricated in green/brown serpentine, it is 29 × 9 × 0.65 cm. It is at the British Museum.

Ushabti figurines, took the form of mummies and were placed in a tomb to do work that the dead person might need to do in the afterlife.
It was not just about pyramids, temples, tombs and statues. The top image is a Gaming Board and Box inscribed for Amenhotep III (1,390-1,353 BCE). It is on show at the Brooklyn Museum, USA.
The lower image is of music and dancing from the Middle Kingdom. It is on show at the British Museum.

Image source: Wikimedia commons

Image source: britishmuseum.org
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This quartzite head is of Amenhotep III (1,391–1,353 BCE), the ninth pharaoah of the 18th Dynasty. He was known as Amenhotep the Magnificent given that his reign saw a period of great prosperity; he reigned for 38 or 39 years with his Great Royal Wife, Tiye. This vase bears their cartouches – he to the left, she to the right:

Image source: Wikimedia commons
This is another head of Amenhotep III (1,391–1,353 BCE). This is colossal, it was found in the temple enclosure of Mut at Karnak in Upper Egypt. The arm of this statue has also been found. Both ‘body parts’ are now in the British Museum
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The Colossi of Memnon are at Madīnat Habu in Thebes (Luxor). Clearly a return to the traditional Egyptian style these were erected by Amenhotep III.
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Amenhotep IV built a new capital at Amarna and transformed himself into Akhentaten. The Amarna period (1,351-1.334 BCE) introduced a new artistic approach that added a sense of movement and activity. It’s portrayal of the human body within crowded scenes, overlapping bodies and raised heads. Depiction of Akhentaten became rather feminine giving him large hips, breasts, a plump stomach and larger thighs.
This statue is of Akhentaten showing those features, plus an elongation of the whole, assumed to be for symbolic or religious purposes. The Nefertiti bust also used this new style see below. Much of this new approach to art died out after Akhentaten died, and there was a backlash against his new monotheism, several of his and Nefertiti’s images were vandalised, the iconoclast became himself a victim of iconoclasm.
This stucco-coated limestone bust depicts Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of king Akhenaten. It is on show at the Neues Museum Berlin. It is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt, making her one of the most famous Egyptian women and an icon of female beauty. It is credited to Thutmose, not one of the four kings, but the court sculptor to the pharaoh. The bust was found in his workshop and dates to 1345 BCE.

It is believed that Nefertiti, in an effort to avoid the iconoclasm, became Meritaten, the wife of the next pharaoh, Smenkhkare (1,335-1,334 BCE) – or this may have been one of Akhenaten/
Nefertiti’s six daughters. Many suggest that the next pharaoh Neferneferuaten aka Ankhkheperure (1,334-1,332 BCE) was in fact Nefertiti, or was it Meritaten a daughter?

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In order to build Amarna from scratch Akhenaten revolutionised building my quarrying smaller bricks or talatat. These allowed for quicker building of his new capital. Though this image shows that paintings were not as easy. There is little doubt that the reason the Great Pyramid survives is because its blocks were too big and inconvenient to move. The talatat were however easy to dismantle and so much of Akhenaten’s works were redeployed. Perversely this re-tasking has allowed more discoveries and in some case re-assemblies.
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Akhenaten’s religious revolution reduced the Egyptian pantheon to just one god, Aten the sun-disc.
The top relief shows Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their three daughters depicted under the god Aten (sun disc). Cartouches of Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Aten are inscribed. It is in Amarna style. It too is at the Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany.
The lower relief shows Akhenaten worshipping the Aten.
Painted limestone head of Princess Meritaten, daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. It is 15.4 high a 10 cm wide and is on show at the Louvre Paris France.
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Image source: khanacademy.org
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These fragments are from the tomb of Nebamun (c1,350 BCE) at Thebes temple complex. He was a member of the elite, a scribe and the Chief of the Measurers of the Granary, These fresco paintings depict, presumably idealised, views of his life and activities. From top to bottom:
– fowl hunting in the marshes
– cat hunting birds
– his garden and pool
– surveying in the fields
– herding cattle.
These provide an intriguing insight into Middle Kingdom life – provided you were a member of the elite!
The middle image shows one of the most famous works of art in the world, the funerary mask of Tutankhamun.
It was found by Howard Carter, funded by Lord Caernarvon in the Valley of the Kings. The top image shows him during the discovery, after the original b&w image had been colorised.
The mask is fabricated in the likeness of Osiris, god of the afterlife, from Gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian, obsidian, turquoise and glass paste. At 54 x 39 x 49cm and 10 kilos it is dated to 1,323 BCE.
It may originally have been intended for Queen Neferneferuaten (Nefertiti?), her royal name, Ankhkheperure, as a cartouche, was found on the mask, despite attempts having been made to erase it.
In 2015 the beard fell off and was hastily glued back on.
The bottom image is of Tutankhamun’s cartouche.

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Over 5,000 artefacts were recovered from Tutankhamun’s unopened tomb.
The top image is a painting of a battle, it is from a box.
The lower image is a gilded wooden shield.
Horemheb (1,319-1,292 BCE) was the last pharoah of the 18th Dynasty.
The top image shows his sarcophagus and a relief.
The middle image is of a painting in his tomb.
The bottom image is of the king with Amun. This is on show at the Museo Egizio, Turin Italy.


Image source: Wikimedia commons

NINETEENTH DYNASTY (1,292-1,189 BCE):

PHARAOHS OF THIS DYNASTY:
Ramses I (1,292-1,290 BCE); Seti I (1,290-1,279 BCE);
Ramses II (1,279-1,213 BCE); Merneptah (1,213-1,203 BCE);
Seti II (1,203-1,197 BCE); Amenmesse (1,201-1.198 BCE);
Siptak (1,197-1,191 BCE); Twosret (1,191-1,189 BCE)

The Nineteenth Dynasty is often grouped with the 20th and called Ramesside period. It was founded by Horemheb’s vizier, Paramessu (Ramses 1) who was selected as his successor by the last 18th Dynasty pharaoh. He was of noble birth, but not royal, his reign was short (1,292-1,290 BCE).

The new dynasty came under greater threat from the Hittite Empire that had extended into Canaan. The challenge was met by Ramses I’s son Seti (1,280-1,279 BCE) and his grandson Ramses II (1,279-1,213 BCE), who, perhaps as a result, became known as Ramses the Great.

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This relief shows Ramses I (originally Paramessu) in religious observance, making offerings to Osiris. Ramses I had found favor with Horemheb, the last pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who appointed the former as his vizier. As high priest of Set and played a role in reestablishing the traditional religion and deities to replace the Amarna ‘heresy’. His short reign left few artefacts and a simple tomb. A mummy, believed to be his, was stolen from Egypt and displayed in a private Canadian museum for many years, but was later repatriated.
Seti I (1,290-1,279 BCE) built a temple at Abydos.
The top image shows its facade. The second is the king depicted in a relief within the temple.
The third is a corridor/gallery that bears Seti’s version of the Egyptian Kings’ list, known as the ‘Table of Abydos’.
The fourth image shows a set of hieroglyphs that appear to be a helicopter, a submarine, and a zeppelin or plane. However this is the result of it being plastered and recarved during Ramses II’s reign, with time the plaster has eroded leaving this pailmpest appear as a series of anachronisms.
The bottom image is another relief in the temple, this is showing an offering table.





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Seti I also built Luxor’s Hypostyle Hall in the Great Temple of Amun, the central temple of Karnak’s temple complex. Hypostyle means a pillared and roofed building.
The first image shows the entrance. The second shows the inscriptions on the 134 papyrus columns. They are arranged in sixteen rows, the middle two are higher than the others at 24m high and 10m in circumference.
Decoration of the southern wing was completed by Ramses II. The succeeding pharaohs added inscriptions to the walls and columns where their predecessors had left blank, these included Ramesses III, Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI
Ramses II became ‘the Great’ by being routinely involved in conflict.
The first image depicts Ramses II at the 1,274 BCE Battle of Kadesh The relief is from his Abu Simbel temple. The battle was against the Hittites, here he is depicted killing one enemy while trampling another. This was the first and the best recorded account of an ancient battle. It details the tactics and formations used with the 5,000-6,000 chariots that were involved – perhaps, the largest number ever.
The second image is a painting from the Beit el-Wali temple, showing him in his war chariot charging towards Nubians.
The third image is a mural from Thebes showing him battling the Syrians at the siege of Daipur in 1,269 BCE.
The bottom image is a relief from Memphis showing Ramses II capturing a Nubian, a Libyan and a Syrian.







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Gigantic statues of Ramses II were placed at the entrance to the Luxor (aka Thebes) Temple. It was originally constructed in 1,400 BCE using sandstone from the Gebel el-Silsila area, in SW Egypt.
A pair of obelisks erected here by Thutmose III, are today the two Cleopatra’s Needles sited on the Thames Embankment in London and in Central Park, New York. One of another pair of obelisks is today on Place de la Concorde in Paris, the Luxor Obelisk.
What remains of four massive statues of Ramses II sit outside his Abu Simbel rock-cut temple. It is near today’s border with Sudan and therefore bordering the then Nubia. His wife Nefertari and children are also present here. It was built to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Kadesh.
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The main wife of Ramses II, Nefertari had vivid wall paintings on what is rated as one of the most beautiful tombs in Egypt. This watercolor copy shows the queen being led by the goddess Isis. The queen’s high status is apparent in she is interacting directly with a deity.
The lower pictures show details from Nefertari’s tomb..
This is a shabti box, which is essentialy two shrines. One holds the statue of a divinity, the other holds a mummiform statue, representing the deceased owner united with Osiris in death. These are often of blue or green glazed Egyptian faience, but can be clay, glass, metal, stone, or wood. They were in use from the second dynasty, but the practice halted after the New Kingdom.
This one is 29 x 21 x 16cm made of painted wood, and on show in the Metropolitan Museum. It was found at Thebes in Sennedjem’s tomb, but is inscribed to Paramnekhu, his son or grandson.

Image source: Wikimedia commons
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The Book of the Dead is an ancient papyrus script that contains texts on how to assist the dead person through the underworld to the afterlife. From 3,000 BCE these ‘spell’ texts were inscribed or painted on tomb walls, sarcophagi and coffins.The earliest papyrus versions of the spells and manuscripts date to 1,550 BCE. Its use halted c50 BCE.
Hunefer was steward of King Seti I c1275 BCE. He was the ‘Royal Scribe’ and ‘Scribe of Divine Offerings’. The lower image is of his Book of the Dead. It is on show at the British Museum, London UK.

Image source: ancienthistorylists.com

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TWENTIETH DYNASTY (1,189-1,077 BCE)

PHARAOHS OF THIS DYNASTY:
Setnakhte (1,189-1,186 BCE); Ramses III (1,186-1,155 BCE);
Ramses IV (1,155-1,149 BCE); Ramses V (1,149-1,145 BCE);
Ramses VI (1,145-1.137 BCE); Ramses VII (1.136-1,129 BCE);
Ramses VIII (1,130-1,129 BCE); Ramses IX (1,129-1,111 BCE);
Ramses X (1,111-1,107 BCE); Ramses XI (1,107-1,077 BCE)

In the Twentieth Dynasty, other than the first pharaoh, Setnakhte I, the other nine all took the name Ramses.

As we saw, Akhenaten had created a single deity religion, worshipping the Aten. After his death Horemheb (18th Dynasty), had fully restored the traditional religion and the High Priests of Amun. The 20th Dynasty saw the steady loss of pharaonic power to the high priests, their status operating directly between the deities and the people, devalued the pharaohs’ power.

Setnakhte’s reign defended Egypt from the Sea Peoples. Ramses III had problems with Libyan invaders and decisively ended the threat of the Sea Peoples, but then had labour disputes with his monument builders and an assassination attempt from his harem. This was as nothing compared with the Ramses III succession, with his family members vying with each other in a series of short reigns. Three of his sons,Ramses IV, VI and VIII all grabbed power from their predecessors, while a series of droughts, famines, civil unrest and official corruption all led to decline and Egypt fractured.

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Setnakhte founder the 20th Dynasty, it is suggested that he usurped the throne from Twosret of the 19th Dynasty. He died after reigning for three years to be succeeded by his son Ramses III.
It is reported that his tomb was found and his mummy was in a boat, but this was stolen or destroyed by looters.

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Ramses III red granite sarcophagus. It is on show at the Louvre Paris France. Trial documents have been discovered that reveal a plot by his harem to assassinate Ramses III, thirty-eight people were sentenced to death, some were allowed the option of taking poison. As he died in his thirty-second year the question was whether a second plot took place. Initially it was believed that his mummy showed no wounds but a recent German TV forensic team investigated heavy bandaging around his neck and X-rays showed his throat had been slit.
Statue of Ramses IV (1,155-1,149 BCE) making an offering. He was the fifth son of Ramses III. He started a massive building program to emulate Ramesses the Great’s projects. He extensively used the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines in Sinai.
One of his projects was to expand his father’s Temple of Khonsu at Karnak; the second image is of a relief of Ramses IV in that temple
He also produced the Papyrus Harris I, the longest known papyrus, it is 41 meters long with 1,500 lines of text lauding the achievements of his father. It was found in a tomb near Medinet Habu, across the Nile river from Luxor, Egypt, and is on show at the British Museum.



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The mummified head of Ramses V (1,149-1,145 BCE), son of Ramses IV. He ruled for just four years, dying of smallpox (revealed by lesions on his face). His reign saw ongoing growth of the power of the priesthood of Amun, which controlled both temple lands and state finances, to the detriment of the pharaohs. This and Libyan invasions both led to work on his tomb being delayed.
The Wilbour Papyrus, produced in the final year of Ramesses V’s reign, reported a major land survey and tax assessment. It showed most of Egypt’s land was controlled by the Amun temples, and highlights the increasing power of the High Priest of Amun Ramessesnakht and his son Usimare’nakhte who was chief tax master.
It appears that Ramses VI, his paternal uncle, unseated Ramses V and certainly purloined his tomb.
The lower image is an obelisk with Ramses V cartouche.
The black granite head from the sarcophagus Ramses VI (1,145-1.137 BCE), a so of Ramses III. His tomb is in the Valley of the Kings. It was built above that of Tutankhamun, which inadvertently and beneficially concealed the earlier pharoah’s treasures from grave robbers. During Ramses VI reign territory was lost in Canaan and this impacted financially on Egypt. The pharaoh’s power began to wane in Upper Egypt given Libyan and Upper Egyptians’ incursions. Ramses VI was something of a self-publicist adding his cartouche to predecessors’ monuments, and he was fond of cult statues of himself.
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A painted sunk relief of the king being embraced by a goddess, from the Tomb of Amenherkhepshef, the son of Ramses VI. He died before his father and was buried in a reused sarcophagus of Twosret (1,191-1,189 BCE) within an extension of the tomb originally planned for Chancellor Bay (an influential powerbroker at the end of the 19th Dynasty).
Drawing from the tomb of Ramses VII (1.136-1,129 BCE), the son of Ramses VI. His tomb was his only extant monument (in the Valley of Kings), his mummy has not been found, but four cups with his name were found in other tombs.
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Ramses VIII (1,130-1,129 BCE) was another Ramses III son (Sethiherkhepeshef II). This relief/painting is from the Mortuary Temple of Rameses III at Medinet Habu. Like this image, Ramesses VIII is the most obscure ruler of this Dynasty, he lasted on the throne for one year at the most. He is the sole pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been definitely identified in the Valley of the Kings,
The top image is a portrait of Ramses IX Ramses IX (1,129-1,111 BCE) from his tomb.
The lower image is a relief from his tomb, today it is on show at the Met Museum NY USA.
His reign is perhaps most famous for a spate of graverobbing. The Abbott Papyrus reports a careful examination finding that royal tombs, noble tombs and those of the citizens of Thebes had been robbed.



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THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD – 21st-25th Dynasties (1,069-664 BCE):

The Third Intermediate period spanned the twenty-first to twenty-fifth dynasties. Even under Ramses XI (20th Dynasty) Egypt was losing its grip on Thebes, as the High Priests of Amun uled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name from there. However, the pharoahs and priests were from the same family and it did not fracture that significantly.

With the disintegration of the New Kingdom (1069 BCE), Kush in Nubia became an independent Egyptianised kingdom, the Kingdom of Kush, centered at Napata (N Sudan).

The first king of the 21st Dynasty, Smendes I, moved the capital to Tanis in the NE Delta. The 22nd Dynasty had a pharaoh of Libyan origins. While he brought stability it was based on two states – Lower and Middle/Upper Egypt. By the 23rd Dynasty there a spate of local city-states with autonomous rulers emerged – Peftjaubast of Herakleopolis, Nimlot of Hermopolis, Osorkon IV of Tanis, d defeated the combined might of several native Egyptian rulers: Peftjaubast, Osorkon IV of Tanis, Iuput II of Leontopolis and Tefnakht of Sais, Ini at Thebes…

This encouraged the Nubians to exploit this division. The Kushite leader Piye came north to defeat the various factions and establsh the 25th Dynasty.

The Assyrians decided they needed to protect their interests in the Levant by invading Lower Egypt.

This Third Intermediate Period ended in 664 BCE when the Assyrians sacked Thebes and Memphis.

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This decorative jewellery dates to 874-850 BCE (22nd D). Fabricated in gold, lapis lazuli and glass it depicts Osiris, Horus and Isis.
Osiris was a mythical king who was murdered by his brother Set, but his Wife, Isis, restored his body and they conceived Horus. Horus went on to vie with Set for the throne.
This is at the very heart of ancient Egyptian conceptions of kingship and succession, order and disorder, death and the afterlife. These four deities and elements of their worship all derived from the myth.
This ivory plate was originally part of an ancient piece of furniture. It depicts two pharaoh-like figures facing each other. It is interesting for their clothes and jewellery. It is dated to early 8th c BCE.
Image source: www.the961.com
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Image source: metmuseum.org
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This 76 x 14 cm. 8th c BC, ivory statuette is of a man wearing Egyptian clothing. He is walking while holding a leopard skin, with a monkey sitting on his shoulder, as he guides an oryx by the horns. It was found at Nimrud and is assessed as Assyrian.
This ‘Head of a Kushite Ruler’, was fabricated in green schist c716-702 BCE. It is 7 x 5.3 x 6.5 cm and held today by Brooklyn Museum.
Kushite royal statues emphasizse their non-Egyptian origin. This is perhaps King Shabaqa. His shortly cropped hair is bound by a broad headband. Originally a knob at the front had two uraeus cobras; the double cobra is uniquely Kushite.

Image source: brooklynmuseum.org
[1145-79]


Image source: Wikimedia commons
[1145-80]

Rulers of Kush presentation at Kerma Museum in Sudan. It is an archaeological site museum.
The statues are of various rulers of the late 25th Dynasty. These are the so-called ‘black pharaohs’, from left to right, the first is Tantamani, Taharqa (rear), Senkamanisken (front), Tantamani again (rear), the final group is Aspelta, Anlamani and Senkamanisken again.
This painted limestone relief shows boatbuilding. The museum notes the unusual use of curving lines, but otherwise sees echoes of the Old Kingdom.
It is dated to 664-634 BCE so sits on the cusp of the Third Intermediate Period and the Late Period (see below). It is 27 x 20 cm and is at the Brooklyn Museum.

Image source: brooklynmuseum.org

Forward to 1.1.4.6 Egypt – Ptolemaic
Back to 1.1.4.4 Egypt – middle kingdom

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