Scythians (900 – 200 BCE) and Achaemenid Persians (550-330 BCE)

Forward to 1.1.4 Early Classical Period – Egypt…Back to Hittites (1,650-1,178 BCE) QUICK LINKS:Scythians:Gold plaque with pantherGolden plaquesScythian combBronze culture plaque (ordos)Gold neckpiece (pectoral)Golden crown Achaemenid Persians:Cyrus the Great – winged guardianGold rhytonBracelet – from Oxus TreasurePersepolis Apadana relief – Darius and XerxesApadana relief – AmbassadorsAhura Mazda reliefBull, Huma and Horse capitalsPersepolis GatewayFrieze of […]

Continue Reading Hittites (1,650-1,178 BCE)

Forward to Scythians and Achaemenids (900-200 BCE)Back to Babylonians (1,894-539 BCE) QUICK LINKS: Alaca Höyük Sphinx GateIvory SphinxHüseyindede vasesFist drinking cupKing’s Gate/Lion Gate/Sphinx Gate at HattusaBattle of Kadash relief Treaty of KadashHittite deities/Engravings at Yazılıkayİmamkullu reliefSeal of TarkasnawaLuwian Hieroglyphs The Hittite Kingdom came into being 1.680-1.650 BCE, it became an Empire from the […]

Continue Reading Babylonians (1,894 – 539 BCE)

Forward to Hittites (1,650-1,178 BCE)Back to Assyrians (2,025-609 BCE) QUICK LINKS:Worshipper of LarsaBurney ReliefCode of HammurabiKing Melishpak I SteleMarduk-apla-iddina INebuchadnezzar I King Marduk-nadin-akhe, Black Limestone Boundary MarkerKing Nabu-apla-iddinaKing Marduk-zakir-shumiConical Seal – lapis lazuliIshtar Gate (King Nebuchadnezzar II)Lion and dragon detail from gateBabylonian Pottery The water table in Babylonia is high and, as a […]

Continue Reading Akkadians (2,334-2,154 BCE)

Forward to Assyrians (2,025-609 BCE)Back to Phoenicians (2,500-539 BCE) QUICK LINKS:Victory Stele of Naram-SinBassetki Copper StatueAkkadian Empire seal with Ishtar Cylinder seal of Ibni-SharrumAkkadian Ruler HeadAkkadian Ruler StatueClay tablet, SharkalisharriAkkadian Pottery From the 3rd c BCE, around the city of Akkad, a new empire coalesced under Sargon (The Great) and his successors. The […]

Continue Reading Assyrians

Forward to Babylonians (1,894-539 BCE)Back to Akkadians (2,350-2,150 BCE) QUICK LINKS:Ishchali, four-faced god Nimrud Relief PanelIamassu StatuePalace of Sargon II relief 1Palace of Sargon II relief 2 Winged Bulls bas-reliefNineveh reliefs, AshurbanipalLion bronze weight Assyrians claim to be descended from Abraham’s grandson, Dedan, but there is no formal source for this. They can […]

Continue Reading Phoenicians (2,500-539 BCE)

Forward to Akkadians (2,350-2,150 BCE)Back to Sumerians (4,100-1,750 BCE) QUICK LINKS:Astarte plaque, Gaza StripBaal bronze, Ras ShamraIvory Sphinx plaque, NimrudGate showing Phoenician tribute, AssyriaSphinx Horse Blinker Lionness devouring a boyReshef, God of the UnderworldSarcophagus of AhiramBronze Bowl, NimrudGold Scarab SealPhoenician glassware The Phoenicians created a thalassocratic, or seaborne, empire. It formed at the […]

Continue Reading Sumerians (4,100-1,750 BCE)

Forward to Phoenicians (2,500-539 BCE)Back to Ubaidians (6,500-3,800 BCE) QUICK LINKSZiggurat of UrSumerian Dignitary, UrukTell Brak HeadInnana Head/Mask of Warka Cylinder seal with priest-kingEarly sample of writingSumerian Lionesss PersonStele of UshumgalSumerian StatuettesStandard of UrCylinder Seal and Impression Bull’s Head LyreQueen Puabi Cylinder SealStele of the VulturesLion-headed EagleStatue of Ebih-ilSumerian BridgeUr-Nammu Cylinder SealUr-Nammu Dedication […]

Continue Reading Ubaidians (6,500-3,800 BCE)

Forward to Sumerians (4,100-1,750 BCE)Back to Natufians (13,000-9,500 BCE) QUICK LINKSLizardmenPlates Female figurinesPottery Between 9,000 and 7,000 BCE a Neolithic Revolution emerged as populations grew and spread through the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. The major religions’ scriptures (Bible, Qu’ran and Torah) all refer to a great flood legend that most academics […]

Continue Reading Natufians (13,000-9,500 BCE)

Forward to UbaidiansBack to 1.3 Fertile Crescent QUICK LINKSNatufian mortarsNatufian houseNatufian burialJericho plastered skull Mortar and pestleUrfa ManNatufian carved faceNatufian bovine-rib daggerAin Sakhri Lovers Around 20,000 BP (Before Present), the Ice Age was at its coldest and reduced the availability of wild game as vegetation became sparse.  Our ancestors needed to innovate, they began […]

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1.1.3 Fertile Crescent (13,000 – 200 BCE)

Forward to Natufians – Forward to 1.1.4 Early ClassicalBack to 1.1.2 Ancient Far East The first human civilizations emerged within the ‘Fertile Crescent’ of Mesopotamia, sat between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The ready supply of water and good soil fertility attracted, and was able to sustain, ever-larger settled communities, these included the Natufians, […]

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