1.3.3.4 Bolognese School (1590-1630)

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QUICK LINKS:
Butcher’s Shop, Carracci
Triumph Bacchus, Carracci
Love of the Gods, Carracci
Pieta with Saints, Carracci
Adoration Shepherds, Domenichino
Sacrifice of Isaac, Domenichino
Dance of the Cupids, Albani
Venus Plays the Harp, Lanfranco
Baptism of Christ, Albani

In fine art painting, the term ‘Bolognese School’ usually describes the anti-Mannerism art movement, based in Bologna (capital of Emilia Romagna, Italy), which became the driving force for a return to the solidity and grandeur associated with High Renaissance Painting, combined with the rich colourism of Venetian Painting (1450 onwards).

This classical movement – in effect, a reaction against the contrived artificiality of Mannerism – was highly influential in the cinquecento transition to Baroque painting, and was pioneered by the Carracci Academy established by Annibale Carracci, his brother Agostino and their cousin Ludovico.

As a centre of painting and drawing, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the Bolognese School outshone the Parma School of painting and ranked alongside Florence, Rome, or even Venice.

[Source: visual-arts-cork.com]

[1334-10]


Image source: Wikimedia commons
Butcher’s Shop is the title of two paintings by the Italian Baroque painter Annibale Carracci, both dating from the early 1580s. They are now in the collections of Christ Church Picture Gallery, Oxford, and the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas.

The large size of the Christ Church painting is exceptional for such a subject at this date, and it has been suggested they were commissioned by a butcher’s guild, or for use as a sign.

Members of the painter’s family were used as models. Significant alterations to some figures are revealed by X-rays, and the hand on the edge of the table, now apparently belonging to the old woman, though not in proportion with the rest of her, may have originally belonged to the butcher to the right of her. [Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE
Butcher’s Shop, Thec1583Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Carracci, Annibale1560-1609, aged 48Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-11]

Christ Church Picture Gallery, Oxford, UK185 x 266  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
 As the 16th century drew to a close, a certain weariness was evident against the forms of late Mannerism which had dominated the entire European art scene by the second half of the century. The early Baroque in Italy may also be regarded as a conscious and critically motivated phase of reform in every field of art.

The school of the Bolognese artists Lodovico, Agostino and Annibale Carracci formulated the approach clearly by founding an academy. A masterpiece of this reform movement was the huge cycle of paintings commissioned to decorate the Galleria Farnese in Rome, created under the auspices of Annibale Carracci, who was responsible for its planning and execution.

The grand mythological programme representing the power of love by way of example of the Olympian gods went hand in hand with an aesthetic concept that was to be of fundamental importance for all subsequent Baroque fresco painting. The motivation of the academy is clearly evident in this major work; it is aimed at a revival of the natural ideal once embodied by the art of the High Renaissance.
[Source: wga.hu]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Triumph of Bacchus and Adriane (Central Farnese Fresco)1595-1605FrescoHistory painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Carracci, Annibale1560-1609, aged 48Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-12]

Palazzo Farnese, Piazza Farnese, 67, 00186 Roma RM, Italy73 x 63  
The Loves of the Gods is a monumental fresco cycle, completed by the Bolognese artist Annibale Carracci and his studio, in the Farnese Gallery which is located in the west wing of the Palazzo Farnese, now the French Embassy, in Rome.

The frescoes were greatly admired at the time, and were later considered to reflect a significant change in painting style away from sixteenth century Mannerism in anticipation of the development of Baroque and Classicism in Rome during the seventeenth century.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Farnese Frescoes – The Love of the Gods1597-1608FrescoHistory painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Carracci, Annibale1560-1609, aged 48Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-13]

Palazzo Farnese, Piazza Farnese, 67, 00186 Roma RM, Italy  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Pietà with Saint Francis and Saint Mary Magdalene is a 1602-1607 oil on canvas painting by Annibale Carraci. Now in the Louvre, it was looted from the Mattei family chapel in San Francesco a Ripa in Rome by Napoleon’s troops in 1797 and was not returned at the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Pietà with Saint Francis and Saint Mary Magdalene1602-7Oil/CanvasHistory painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Carracci, Annibale1560-1609, aged 48Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-14]

Musée du Louvre, Paris France277 x 186  
 Summoned by an angel, a group of fascinated shepherds crowd around to admire the new-born baby Jesus. The baby is surrounded by a divine light that bathes the scene with a warm glow. One early source described this painting as a copy after a lost work by Domenichino’s master, Annibale Carracci. In fact the composition is Domenichino’s own, albeit strongly influenced by Carracci. At the time this painting was made Domenichino was still making frequent visits to Carracci’s studio in Rome. [Image source: nationalgalleries.org]
Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Adoration of the Shepherds, Thec1607-10Oil/CanvasHistory painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri)1581-1641, aged 59Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-15]

National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh UK143 x 115  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
Carracci influenced numerous followers especially in Bologna. Domenichino was one of them. This painting was executed for the pictorial decoration of the so-called New Room (Salón Nuevo) of the Alcázar in Madrid, an imposing gallery in the southern wing reserved for important occasions of state. The New Room underwent periodic changes of decoration during Philip IV’s reign.
[Source: wga.hu]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Sacrifice of Isaac, The1627-8Oil/CanvasHistory painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri)1581-1641, aged 59Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-16]

Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid Spain147 x 140  
Developing his own style within the Bolognese School, Albani eventually traveled to Rome in 1600 for a commission obtained by Annibale Carracci (1560 – 1609) at the Palazzo Farnese. Annibale considered Albani to be one of his most promising assistants.

Albani was then brought to northern Italy on a private commission from a prominent patron of the time, Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani (1564 – 1637). Here he completed a large fresco titled, Fall of Phaeton and Council of the Gods. As part of a number of Mythological paintings that Albani created, they are considered his superior works. This includes his piece now at the Uffizi Gallery, Dance of the Cupids.
[Source: virtualuffizi.com]

Image source: christies.com
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Dance of the Cupids, The1578-1660Oil/PanelHistory painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Albani, Francesca1578-1660, aged 82Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-17]

Uffizi Gallery,  Florence Italy90 x 119  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
The work was painted by Lanfranco prior to his departure in 1634 for Naples. The painting was made for the musician Marco Marazzoli, also called Marco dell’Arpa (Mark of the Harp) for his skill with the instrument. The semi-disrobed female playing the instrument in the painting is identified with Venus by virtue of the amoretti in the background. The engraved bees on the wooden triple harp depicted identify it as belonging to the Barberini family. This instrument is on display in the Museo degli Strumenti Musicali in Rome. Marazzoli, after his death, left it to his patron the cardinal Antonio Barberini.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Venus Plays the Harp (Allegory of Music)c1634Oil/CanvasGenre Painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Lanfranco, Giovanni1582-1647, aged 65Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1334-18]

Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, via delle Quattro Fontane, 13 (Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy214 x 150  
We read of the baptism of Christ in the waters of the River Jordan by John the Baptist in the Gospel According to St Matthew and St Mark .

In accordance with tradition, Albani shows the moment at which the Holy Spirit descended from the sky in the form of a dove and announced with mysterious voice “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased”. Due to the loss of the upper part of the painting, we no longer see the dove today.
[Source: arthermitage.org]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Baptism of Christc1640Oil/CanvasHistory painting
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Albani, Francesca1578-1660, aged 82Italian painter, BolognaBolognese School
LOCATION:SIZE (cms):  
State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, Russia268 x 195  

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