1.5.3.4 Abstract Art II (1956- )

Forward to 1.5.3.5 Divisionism (1884- ) – Forward to 1.5.4 Modernisme Index (1888-1911)
Back to 1.5.3.4 Abstract Art I (1880s-1952) – Back to 1.5.3.3 Symbolism (1880s-1890s)
Back to 1.5.3 Pointillism Index – Back to 1.5.2 Arts and Crafts (1868-1910)

QUICK LINKS:
White Journey, Tobey
Yellow and Gold, Rothko
Orange and Yellow, Rothko
Around the Blues, Francis
No. 10, Rothko
No. 9 (White and Blue on Wine), Rothko
Seagram Murals, Rothko
Untitled, Bontecou
Le Gros, Kilne
Blue, Orange, Red, Rothko
Painting 150, Millares
The Ohio Gang, Kitaj
Rothko Chapel, Rothko
Untitled, Judd
Nude Woman with Necklace, Picasso
Untitled (Black on Grey), Rothko
Untitled, Rothko
Elegy to the Spanish Republic, Motherwell
Flamingo, Calder
Theatre de Gerard Philipe, Viera da Silva
Crucifixion 3.85, Saura
Shower, Fetting
Femmes de Alger, Picasso
1000 Thread Count, Brown

[1534-40]


Image source: pinterest.com
The unusual Abstract Expressionism of American painter Mark Tobey stands apart from the New York School because of its delicate Oriental and spiritual quality. Largely self-taught as an artist, he started as an illustrator working in Chicago and New York. In 1918 he converted to the Baha’i faith, which offers a synthesis of world religions.
[Source: khanacademy.org}

Abstract painter Mark Tobey strived to represent the mystical through art. Inspired by international travels, Eastern religion, Arabic calligraphy, classical music, and the emerging modes of Abstract Expressionism, Tobey created a unique visual language of all-over painting and gestural abstraction, which he called ‘white writing’.

What I had learned in the Orient had affected more than I realized, he said. In a short time white writing emerged. I had a totally new conception of painting.

When working in this technique, Tobey would place white calligraphic marks and symbols atop an abstract field composed of thousands of densely interwoven brushstrokes.
[Source: artsy.net]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
White Journey1956Dist/PprAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Tobey, Mark1890 – 1976, aged 85American painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-41]

Beyeler Collection, Basel (Ernst and Hildy Beyeler )114 x 90  
Mark Rothko’s paintings had become quite abstract by the end of the 1940s due to years of experimentation. His signature style had also emerged around this time, which involved two or three rectangles that are set on a background that simultaneously differentiates them while at the same time uniting them compositionally.

The edges on Rothko’s forms are not distinct. Therefore, this allows eyes to move easily from one area to another. He did this since he did not want viewers to think much about him while looking at his paintings, as he put in much effort to get rid of the evidence involved in the creative process. For instance, he used thin layers of paint using a rag or brush on an unprepared canvas. This procedure allowed for the pigment to soak in and be part of the surface. This layered wash of pigment achieved an effect of luminescence.
[Source: markrothko.org]

Image source: markrothko.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Yellow and Gold1956Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-42]

Philip Johnson Collection, New Canaan, Connecticut243 x 187  

Image source: wikiart.org
Rothko wanted to express emotion through his palette, which he saw as a door into another reality. As he explained, The people who weep before my pictures are having the same religious experience I had when I painted them.

He wanted to transcend his worldly existence. He wanted to release his viewers and himself from what he saw to be a chaotic experience of our daily lives. Rothko succeeded in making his art instrumental in his inner life. His paintings stopped being material expressions and transformed into gateways leading to the sublime.
[Source: markrothko.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Orange and Yellow1956Acry/CnvAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-43]

Private collection236 x 206  
During the Second World War Sam Francis served as a pilot with the American armed forces. He took up painting while recovering from a flying accident in 1944.

From 1950-7 he lived in Paris, where he saw first-hand the paintings of Monet, Matisse, Cézanne and Bonnard.

In September 1956 he visited an exhibition of Monet’s Water Lilies, paintings which had aroused his interest for some time and which had an impact on his work. For Francis each colour has a symbolic value: white corresponds to the infinite, blue to the cosmos and water, and yellow to the sun. His experience as a pilot has a bearing on paintings such as this one, which have the appearance of aerial views and communicate the silence of the skies.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
Image source: tate.org.uk
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Around the Blues1957-62Oil/Acr/CnvAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Francis, Sam1923 – 1994, aged 71American painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-44]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK276 x 488  

Image source: moma.org
Between 1949 and 1950, Rothko simplified the compositional structures of his earlier, Surrealist-inspired paintings to arrive at what would become his signature style. Here he divided the canvas horizontally into three dominant planes that softly merge into one another, their large passages of warm and cool colors creating a subtly pulsing field.

Rothko wanted his paintings to awaken viewers to human emotion: “There is no such thing as good painting about nothing,” he argued. He also wanted viewers to get close to his paintings, becoming enveloped in their compositions and immersed in the emotions they expressed and evoked.
[Source: moma.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
No., 101958Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-45]

MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, 1 W 53rd St, New York, NY 10019, USA230 x 145  
No 9. (White and Black on Wine) is a rare, large and imposing landscape-format painting from 1958 that holds a place of particular historical importance in the history of Rothko’s art.

Later given the title of No. 9 by Rothko (around the time of his 1961 retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art), White and Black on Wine is the only work by the artist to have been identified as belonging to the first series of mural paintings that Rothko made for the Four Seasons Restaurant on the ground floor of the prestigious Seagram building in Manhattan.
[Source: christies.com]

Image source: thecityreview.com
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
No. 9 (White and Black on Wine)1958-1959Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-46]

Private collection267 x 422  

Image source: consorziovinochianti.it
 Rothko gave this group of paintings to Tate because of his admiration for Turner’s paintings. In 1958, Rothko accepted a commission to paint a series of murals for the Four Seasons restaurant in New York City’s Seagram building.

He was interested in having a permanent setting for the works so they could always be shown as a group and in an immersive environment. As he worked on the murals, Rothko increasingly concentrated on a sombre palette of reds, browns and blacks. A critic who visited his studio described the colours as ‘darkly luminous’.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Seagram Murals1958Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-47]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK240 x 180  

Image source: moma.org
To make this work, Bontecou took canvas from conveyor belts discarded by a laundry below her East Village apartment, and stretched the pieces across a steel armature.

Untitled straddles the lines between painting and sculpture, mechanical and organic, and inviting and threatening. The void at the center reflects an intense anxiety, if we consider that the artist made this sculpture during a pivotal year: the Bay of Pigs Invasion in Cuba had failed, the United States had committed its first troops to Vietnam, and the construction of the Berlin Wall had begun.

She wrote, My concern is to build things that express our relation to this country . . . to other worlds to glimpse some of the fear, hope, ugliness, beauty, and mystery that exists in us all and which hangs over all the young people today.
[Source: moma.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Untitled1961Steel/fabric…Sculpture
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Bontecou, Lee1931 – American SculptorAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-48]

MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, 1 W 53rd St, New York, NY 10019, USA204 x 226 x 88  
This oil on canvas painting is part of The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection, held by MoMA.
[Source: moma.org]

Image source: moma.org
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Gros, Le1961Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Kline, Franz1910 – 1962, aged 51American painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-49]

MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, 11 W 53rd St, New York, NY 10019, USA105 x 134  

Image source: pinterest.com
Rothko may have incorporated other artistic styles into various phases of his career but it is his ‘Colour Field’ painting approach for which he is best known, and that deserves the most attention.

He spearheaded this movement that included other notable names such as Barnett Newman and Robert Motherwell with an approach that reduced art to a series of regions of single colours, loosely blended into each other where ever they met.

Rothko produced many of these artworks on huge canvases which he hoped would encourage the viewer to become immersed in colour, by actually stepping nearer the piece than they might otherwise have done.
[Source: markrothko.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Blue, Orange, Red1961Acry/CnvAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-50]

Private Collection236 x 206  
Millares began making collages in 1954 using materials such as wood, fabric and sand. From the beginning his work was characterised by the rough textures of his materials and by his way of tearing, bunching, tying and stitching his materials together.

From the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s he employed a particularly austere colour range to create images from which, although abstract, a human figure seemed to emerge. Millares called this figure the homunculus, a term that he associated with ‘man in a primitive state’.
[Source: tate.org.uk]
Image source: tate.org.uk
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Painting 150 (Cuadro 150)1961Oil/Canvas/CollageAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Millares, Manolo1926 – 1972, aged 46Spanish painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-51]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK131 x 162  

Image source: moma.org
The artist and this work was heavily critiqued by the UK newspapaer The Independent, when his Retrospective was held at the Tate Gallery:

“Kitaj’s art is constantly collapsing under the enormous weight of its creator’s ambitions for it. The Ohio Gang, 1964, is an early and prophetic instance of this. Its theme is the theme of so many of Kitaj’s paintings, The World Gone Mad, and the cluttered, collage-like disposition of figures within its perspectiveless space is transparently intended to serve as a metaphor for this.

A kinkily dressed matron and a pair of abbreviated interrogators clearly have evil designs on a naked girl, one of the first of Kitaj’s several pallid, doe-eyed victims. A homunculus in a pram is being wheeled about by a monster nanny while a faceless figure in the background ascends into a brown and black void.

The Ohio Gang may only be a piece of juvenilia, but it exemplifies the shortcomings of Kitaj’s work as a whole. Its subject, the terror and misery of life in the 20th century, is enormous. But if a painter wishes to treat vast and terrible themes, he must paint vastly and terribly moving pictures, and Kitaj cannot do this.

His monsters are not truly monstrous but they are, rather, cartoon cut- outs standing in for the idea of monstrousness – it is only necessary to look at the work of Goya, another of Kitaj’s supposed heroes, to see the difference between truly horrific political painting and Kitaj’s version of it.”
[Source: independent.co.uk]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Ohio Gang, The1964OilAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Kitaj, Ronald Brooks1932 – 2007, aged 74American painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-52]

MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, 1 W 53rd St, New York, NY 10019, USA183 x 184  
The Rothko Chapel – a non-denominational chapel in Houston, Texas – is home to 14 monumental modernist paintings by the pioneer Abstract Expressionist Mark Rothko.

It is an interfaith sacred space dedicated to global human rights, art, and spirituality, that was founded in 1971 by arts patrons and philanthropists Dominique and John de Menil, who placed their utmost faith in Rothko’s vision to express the profound, the miraculous, and regard for the sanctity of the human spirit in this oasis for the intellect and the spirit.
[Source: rothkochapel.org]

Image source: dailyartmagazine.com
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Rothko Chapel, The (14 paintings)1965-6 Abstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-53]

Rothko Chapel, 3900 Yupon St, Houston, TX 77006, USA450 x 330 each  

Image source: moma.org
Although it is hung on a wall like a painting, Untitled (Stack) projects nearly three feet from the wall and climbs like rungs on a ladder from floor to ceiling.

It is made of galvanized iron boxes, all identical and of equal importance. The space around the boxes is also important. The sides are covered with commercially available green lacquer paint typically used to customize Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The tops and bottoms are bare metal. Each of the 12 boxes is nine inches high, and they are spaced nine inches apart. Depending on the height of the ceiling where Untitled (Stack) is displayed, the number of units may be reduced to maintain proper spacing between them. This flexibility reflects the importance of the whole work of art over its individual parts.

Donald Judd ignored traditional craft skills in favour of an overriding system or idea. He wanted his work to suggest an industrial production line. In fact, Judd had his works made in a factory in order to obtain a perfect finish without having to rework the material. The box was one of Judd’s favorite forms, because he felt it was neutral and had no symbolic meaning.
[Source: moma.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Untitled (Stack)1967LacquerSculpture
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Judd, Donald 1928 – 1994, aged 65American painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-54]

Chinati Foundation, 1 Cavalry Row, Marfa, TX 79843, USA22 x 13 a 1  
Throughout his life, Picasso reworked the theme of the female nude.

In his eighties, he revised the traditional ideal of beauty with particular violence, subjecting the body to a repeated assault in paint. Here, a reclining female figure is presented as a raw, sexualised arrangement of orifices, breasts and cumbersome limbs.

It’s all there, Picasso said, I try to do a nude as it is. The face is that of his second wife, Jacqueline Roque.
[Source: tate.org.uk]

Image source: tate.org.uk
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Nude Woman With Necklace1968Oil/CanvasAbstract, Portrait
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Picasso, Pablo1881 – 1973, aged 91Spanish painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-55]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK114 x 162  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
With paintings such as Untitled (Violet, Black, Orange, Yellow on White and Red), Mark Rothko arrived at his mature idiom. For the next 20 years he would explore the expressive potential of stacked rectangular fields of luminous colors. Like other New York School artists, Rothko used abstract means to express universal human emotions, earnestly striving to create an art of awe-inspiring intensity for a secular world.

The desolation of canvases such as Untitled (Black on Gray), drained of color and choked by a white border—rather than suggesting the free-floating forms or veiled layers of his earlier work—indicate that, as Rothko asserted, his paintings are about death.
[Source: guggenheim.org]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Untitled (Black on Grey) 1969-70Acry/CnvAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-56]

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1071 5th Ave, New York, NY 10128, USA203 x 176  
 Untitled is a large painting on paper featuring two rectangles in different tones of brown. The lighter, lower rectangle shows the horizontal sweeps of a broad brush, while the upper rectangle contains vertical marks in a deeper tone, applied with a drier brush. These two fields are divided by a thin, pale, horizontal line. The shapes almost fill the frame, and are edged only by a white border of unpainted paper, which was uncovered when the tape that fixed the paper to a board during painting was lifted. The work is inscribed with the artist’s name and date on the verso.

Untitled belongs to a series of works on paper that are often referred to as the Brown and Gray series. These paintings are characterised by a colour field divided into two unequal areas. In each case the darker tone is positioned above the lighter tone, a configuration Rothko imposed to prevent the works from being read as landscapes. The Brown and Gray paintings on paper anticipate the 1969–70 Black on Gray works, a series of around twenty-five paintings on canvas that formed the last major group Rothko made before his death.
[Source: tate.org.uk]

Image source: tate.org.uk
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Untitled1969Acry/CnvAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Rothko, Mark1903-1970, aged 66Russian-AmericanAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-57]

Tate Galleries, Millbank, Westminster, London SW1P 4RG UK173 x 124  

Image source: artnet.com
 Harnessing immense gestural dynamism and tremendous painterly force, Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 134 from 1974 stands as a paradigmatic example of Robert Motherwell’s most acclaimed body of work, his revered Elegies.

This is part of a limited suite of seven Elegy paintings (numbered #128 – 134) executed between 1974 and 1975. Other examples of which belong to the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC; the Tate Gallery, London; the Detroit Institute of Arts; and the Pinakotheken, Munich.
[Source: sothebys.com]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 1341974Acry/Chcl/CnvAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Motherwell, Robert1915 – 1991, aged 76American painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-58]

Graham Gund Collection245 x 305  
Flamingo, created by noted American artist Alexander Calder, is a 16 m tall stabile located in the Federal Plaza in front of the Kluczynski Federal Building in Chicago, Illinois, United States.

It was commissioned by the United States General Services Administration and was unveiled in 1974, although Calder’s signature on the sculpture indicates it was constructed in 1973.

Calder’s structure is a prominent example of the constructivist movement, first popularized in Russia in the early 20th century. Constructivism refers to sculpture that is made from smaller pieces which are joined together.
[Source: Wikimedia commons]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Flamingo1973/4 Sculpture
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Calder, Alexander1898-1976, aged 78American sculptorAbstract  
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-59]

Federal Plaza, S Dearborn St, Chicago, IL 60604, USA16m (h)  

Image source: museeunterlinden.com
In opposition to what its title might lead one to conclude, this work completed in 1975 by Maria Helena Vieira da Silva is anything but figurative.

Although the ties between this Portuguese-born artist and the wife of the actor Gérard Philipe are well known, the theatre of the painting’s title is only evident through its highly architectural lines.

Through a subtle combination of distinct lines and oblique perspectives that scale the depths of the canvas, Vieira da Silva simultaneously strives to capture a sense of place while expressing an interior emotion, a feeling.

Lines held a singular attraction for this artist during her career, arising from her fascination with their most apparent examples in the real world (streets, cities, scaffolding, suspension bridges) which are distilled, little by little, to their essence, losing their figurative aspect to serve as an abstract expression of space.

Vieira da Silva’s painting is abstract in the way that the musical universe, with which she maintained close ties, may be considered as abstract. Her scores include not only notes, but rhythms, intervals, and sudden changes in dynamics.
[Source: musee-unterlinden.com]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Theatre de Gerard Philipe1975Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Vieira da Silva, Maria Helena1908-1992, aged 84Portuguesee painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-60]

Unterlindenmuseum, 1 Rue des Unterlinden, 68000 Colmar, France162 x 130  
In 1957 Saura was co-founder of the artists’ group El Paso in Madrid and its head until it broke up in 1960.

Around the same time, he painted his first Crucifixions, inspired by Diego Velázquez’ painting Christ Crucified hanging in the Prado in Madrid.

After 1959, he concentrated on painting large-format series of panels engaging with subject matter such as Shrouds, Portraits, Nudes, Crowds, themes he took up again and again in his later work.
[Source: kunstmuseumbern.ch]

Image source: museoreinasofia.es
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Crucifixion 3.851985Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Saura, Antonio1930 – 1998, aged 67Spanish artistAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-61]

Private Collection – Reina Sofia195 x 162  

Image source: Wikimedia commons
German artist Rainer Fetting was born in Wilhelmshaven, Germany. He first completed studies as a carpenter, then worked as a stage designer.

In the years from 1972 to 1978 he was a student at the Academy of Art Berlin, Germany, where he was pupil of Professor Hans Jaenisch. In 1977 Fetter became a co-founder and member of the Galerie am Moritzplatz, in Berlin.
[Source: rogallery.com]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Shower1989Acry/CnvAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Fetting, Rainer1949 – German painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-62]

Private Collection60 x 91  
Inspired by Delacroix’ 1834 work Femmes d’Alger dans leur appartement, Picasso’s Les femmes d’Alger (Version ‘O’) is a phenomenon.

This vast canvas is packed with references to Cubism, fractured or flat perspectives, violent colour clashes and the brilliant syntheses of Picasso’s lifelong obsessions, all referenced together as a savage response to the Delacroix work and echoing Matisse in a maelstrom of colour and shattered and flattened perspectives. In the process, Picasso created a new style of painting.
[Source: christies.com]

Image source: Wikimedia commons
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
Femmes de Alger, Les (version ‘F’) (Women of Algiers)1955Oil/CanvasAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Picasso, Pablo1881 – 1973, aged 91Spanish painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms): [1534-63]

Private collection114 x 146  

Image source: cecilybrown.com
Cecily Brown makes paintings that give the appearance of being in continual flux, alive with the erotic energy of her expressive application and vivid colour, shifting restlessly between abstract and figurative modes. Making reference to the giants of Western painting, as well as to popular culture, she commands an aesthetic that breaks from the strictures of narrative to achieve an extraordinary visual and thematic fluidity.
[Source: gagosian.com]
TITLE:YEAR:FORM:GENRE:
1000 Thread Count2004Oil/LinenAbstract
ARTIST:DATES:ORIGIN:MOVEMENT:
Brown, Cecily 1969 – British painterAbstract
LOCATION:SIZE (cms):  
Private Collection90 x 78  

Forward to 1.5.3.5 Divisionism (1884- ) – Forward to 1.5.4 Modernisme Index (1888-1911)
Back to 1.5.3.4 Abstract Art I (1880s-1952) – Back to 1.5.3.3 Symbolism (1880s-1890s)
Back to 1.5.3 Pointillism Index – Back to 1.5.2 Arts and Crafts (1868-1910)

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